The Consequences of Smoking

  • John Joshua


Epidemiological studies may investigate the intrinsic toxicity and carcinogenicity together with smokers’ behavioural responses to addiction to assess the full consequences of smoking. Hence, the chemical processes in the development of diseases caused by smoking will be addressed before discussing the consequences of smoking to health. The intrinsic toxicity will be discussed as well as the behavioural and carcinogenicity responses of the smokers, and the social and private costs of smoking. Nicotine is only one of the more than 4000 chemicals in cigarettes which severely affect the health of smokers and non-smokers. Over 40 diseases have been identified as being caused by smoking, so that there are considerable detrimental social and private costs involved as a consequence of smoking.


Chemical process in smoking Diseases Epidemiological studies Nicotine Social and private costs 


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Authors and Affiliations

  • John Joshua
    • 1
  1. 1.Deakin UniversityMelbourneAustralia

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