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Antibiotic Resistance due to Reduced Uptake

  • Lucía Fernández
  • Joseph B. McPhee
  • Sandeep Tamber
  • Michelle D. Brazas
  • Shawn Lewenza
  • Robert E. W. Hancock
Chapter

Abstract

The introduction of antibiotic therapy for the treatment of bacterial infections has led to a greatly increased human life span compared to that in the pre-antibiotic era. However, a disturbing trend has also been noted in that, within a very short period of time following the introduction of a new antibiotic, resistance to that antibiotic begins to emerge, a factor that is becoming increasingly meaningful as the discovery of new antibiotics wanes [1–3]. There are a number of mechanisms by which a bacterium may become resistant to a particular antibiotic. Generally these include, but are not limited to, modification of the drug to render it inactive, modification of the drug target, such that it is incapable of interacting with the drug and decreased uptake of the antibiotic into the cell, due to reduced transport and/or increased efflux. Recent functional genomic studies have also implied that antibiotics may have more complex mechanisms of action than first thought and we are beginning to appreciate that in addition to the mutation of primary targets, subtle mutations in secondary targets are likely to be influential [4, 5]. Moreover, a growing body of evidence suggests that the temporary changes in susceptibility associated with the phenomenon of adaptive resistance may also be important for the global rise in bacterial resistance to antimicrobial compounds [6]. This chapter will focus on the contribution of a decreased antibiotic uptake to an increase in antibacterial resistance.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial assistance from the Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research is gratefully acknowledged. REWH holds a Canada Research Chair.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucía Fernández
    • 1
  • Joseph B. McPhee
    • 2
  • Sandeep Tamber
    • 3
  • Michelle D. Brazas
    • 4
  • Shawn Lewenza
    • 5
  • Robert E. W. Hancock
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Instituto de Productos Lacteos de Asturias (IPLA)Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC)VillaviciosaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and BiologyRyerson UniversityTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Bureau of Microbial HazardsHealth CanadaOttawaCanada
  4. 4.Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, MaRS CentreTorontoCanada
  5. 5.Faculty of Science and TechnologyAthabasca UniversityAthabascaCanada
  6. 6.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  7. 7.Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity ResearchUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

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