Echo State Network Ensemble for Human Motion Data Temporal Phasing: A Case Study on Tennis Forehands

  • Boris BačićEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9950)


Temporal phasing analysis is integral to ubiquitous/“smart” coaching devices and sport science. This study presents a novel approach to autonomous temporal phasing of human motion from captured tennis activity (3D data, 66 time-series). Compared to the optimised Echo State Network (ESN) model achieving 85 % classification accuracy, the ESN ensemble system demonstrates improved classification of 95 % and 100 % accurate phasing state transitions for previously unseen motions without requiring ball impact information. The ESN ensemble model is robust to low-sampling rates (50 Hz) and unbalanced data sets containing incomplete data time-series. The demonstrated achievements are applicable to exergames, augmented coaching and rehabilitation systems advancements by enabling automated qualitative analysis of motion data and generating feedback to aid motor skill and technique improvements.


Computational Intelligence (CI) Sport and rehabilitation Biomechanics Augmented Coaching Systems (ACS) Data analytics Human Motion Modelling and Analysis (HMMA) 



The author wishes to express his appreciation to developers of Oger Toolbox ( and Spyder IDE ( utilised in this study. The tennis data was obtained in the Peharec polyclinic for physical therapy and rehabilitation, Pula (Croatia) in collaboration with Petar Bačić (biomechanics lab specialist and professional tennis coach). The author also wishes to express his sincere appreciation to Dr. Stefan Schliebs and Dr. Russel Pears for their valuable comments and insights.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical SciencesAuckland University of TechnologyAucklandNew Zealand

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