Advertisement

Tumors of Uncertain Differentiation

  • Simon David SprengelEmail author
  • Marc-André Weber
  • Hendrik  R. Degryse
  • Filip M. Vanhoenacker
Chapter

Abstract

As one may expect, the lesions of unknown differentiation constitute a very heterogeneous group of both neoplasms and tumorlike lesions. In the past, these tumors were also labeled as being “of uncertain origin.” In view of the knowledge that these tumors do not arise from their normal cellular counterparts, the former classification based on “histiogenetic” concepts was no longer valuable. The current classification is based on terms of “differentiation,” which depends on patterns of gene expression. In this book chapter, benign lesions such as intramuscular myxoma, intermediate tumors such as atypical fibroxanthoma, and malignant lesions such as synovial sarcoma will be discussed. This differentiation is predominantly based on their local growth pattern and clinical behavior, because of their often still unclear line of cell differentiation.

Keywords

Synovial Sarcoma Fibrous Dysplasia Epithelioid Sarcoma Clear Cell Sarcoma Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Abbott GF, Rosado-de-Christenson ML, Frazier AA, Franks TJ, Pugatch RD, Galvin JR (2005) From the archives of the AFIP: lymphangioleiomyomatosis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 25:803–828. doi: 10.1148/rg.253055006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abdullah A, Patel Y, Lewis TJ, Elsamaloty H, Strobel S (2009) Extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumors: radiologic findings with histopathologic correlation. Cancer Imaging 10:97–101. doi: 10.1102/1470-7330.2010.0010 Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ali S, Leng B, Reinus WR, Khilko N, Khurana JS (2013) Parachordoma/myoepithelioma. Skeletal Radiol 42:431–457–8. doi: 10.1007/s00256-012-1413-6
  4. 4.
    Allam K, Sze G (1994) MR of primary extraosseous Ewing sarcoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 15:305–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Allen PW (2000) Myxoma is not a single entity: a review of the concept of myxoma. Ann Diagn Pathol 4:99–123. doi: 10.1053/adpa.2000.0099 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alobid I, Bernal-Sprekelsen M, Alos L, Benitez P, Traserra J, Mullol J (2003) Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the left maxillary sinus. Acta Otolaryngol 123:776–778. doi: 10.1080/00016480310001213 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ambros IM, Ambros PF, Strehl S, Kovar H, Gadner H (1991) MIC2 is a specific marker for Ewing’s sarcoma and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Evidence for a common histogenesis of Ewing’s sarcoma and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors from MIC2 expression and specific chromosome aberration. Cancer 67:1886–1893PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arora VC, Price AP, Fleming S, Sohn MJ, Magnan H, LaQuaglia MP, Abramson S (2013) Characteristic imaging features of desmoplastic small round cell tumour. Pediatr Radiol 43:93–102. doi: 10.1007/s00247-012-2485-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ashby-Richardson H, Rogers GS, Stadecker MJ (2011) Superficial acral fibromyxoma: an overview. Arch Pathol Lab Med 135:1064–1066. doi: 10.5858/2009-0684-RSR1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Askin FB, Rosai J, Sibley RK, Dehner LP, McAlister WH (1979) Malignant small cell tumor of the thoracopulmonary region in childhood: a distinctive clinicopathologic entity of uncertain histogenesis. Cancer 43:2438–2451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Asvall JE, Hoeg K, Kleppe K, Prydz PE (1969) Alveolar soft part sarcoma. Clin Radiol 20:426–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bakri A, Shinagare AB, Krajewski KM, Howard SA, Jagannathan JP, Hornick JL, Ramaiya NH (2012) Synovial sarcoma: imaging features of common and uncommon primary sites, metastatic patterns, and treatment response. Am J Roentgenol 199:208–215. doi: 10.2214/AJR.11.8039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Benedikt RA, Jelinek JS, Kransdorf MJ, Moser RP, Berrey BH (1994) MR imaging of soft-tissue masses: role of gadopentetate dimeglumine. J Magn Reson Imaging 4:485–490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Biegel JA (2006) Molecular genetics of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors. Neurosurg Focus 20:2–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Biegel JA, Conard K, Brooks JJ (1993) Translocation (11;22)(p13;q12): primary change in intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Genes Chromosom Cancer 7:119–121. doi: 10.1002/gcc.2870070210 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bindra J, Doherty M, Hunter JC (2012) Superficial acral fibromyxoma. Radiology Case Reports 7:751. doi: 10.2484/rcr.v7i3.751 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Blacksin MF, Siegel JR, Benevenia J, Aisner SC (1997) Synovial sarcoma: frequency of nonaggressive MR characteristics. J Comput Assist Tomogr 21:785–789PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bode-Lesniewska B, Zhao J, Speel EJM, Biraima AM, Turina M, Komminoth P, Heitz PU (2001) Gains of 12q13-14 and overexpression of mdm2 are frequent findings in intimal sarcomas of the pulmonary artery. Virchows Arch 438:57–65. doi: 10.1007/s004280000313 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brady MS, Perino G, Tallini G, Russo P, Woodruff JM (1996) Malignant mesenchymoma. Cancer 77:467–473. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19960201)77:3<467::AID-CNCR7>3.0.CO;2-H PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brinkhuis M, Wijnaendts LCD, van der Linden JC, Baak JPA, Meijer CJLM, van Unnik AJM, Voûte PA (1995) Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour and extra-osseous Ewing’s sarcoma; a histological, immunohistochemical and DNA flow cytometric study. Virchows Arch 425:611–616. doi: 10.1007/BF00199351 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Burge HJ, Novotny DB, Schiebler ML, Delany DJ, McCartney WH (1990) MRI of Askin’s tumor. Case report at 1.5 T. Chest 97:1252–1254. doi: 10.1378/chest.97.5.1252 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Burke AP, Virmani R (1993) Sarcomas of the great vessels. A clinicopathologic study. Cancer 71:1761–1773. doi: 10.1002/1097-0142(19930301)71:5<1761::AID-CNCR2820710510>3.0.CO;2-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carrillo R, El-Naggar AK, Rodriguez-Peralto JL, Batsakis JG (1992) Synovial sarcoma of the tongue: case report and review of the literature. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 50:904–906. doi: 10.1016/0278-2391(92)90288-B PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Castillo M, Lee YY, Yamasaki S (1992) Infratemporal alveolar soft part sarcoma: CT, MRI and angiographic findings. Neuroradiology 34:367–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chase DR, Enzinger FM (1985) Epithelioid sarcoma. Diagnosis, prognostic indicators, and treatment. Am J Surg Pathol 9:241–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Christopherson WM, Foote FW, Stewart FW (1952) Alveolar soft-part sarcomas; structurally characteristic tumors of uncertain histogenesis. Cancer 5:100–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cibas ES, Goss GA, Kulke MH, Demetri GD, Fletcher CDM (2001) Malignant epithelioid angiomyolipoma (“Sarcoma Ex Angiomyolipoma”) of the kidney: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 25:121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Clabeaux J, Hojnowski L, Valente A, Damron TA (2008) Case report. Clin Orthop Relat Res 466:1251–1256. doi: 10.1007/s11999-008-0125-7 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cohen MA, Mendelsohn DB (1990) CT and MR imaging of myxofibroma of the jaws. J Comput Assist Tomogr 14:281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Contesso G, Llombart-Bosch A, Terrier P, Peydro-Olaya A, Henry-Amar M, Oberlin O, Habrand JL, Dubousset J, Tursz T, Spielmann M (1992) Does malignant small round cell tumor of the thoracopulmonary region (Askin tumor) constitute a clinicopathologic entity? An analysis of 30 cases with immunohistochemical and electron-microscopic support treated at the Institute Gustave Roussy. Cancer 69:1012–1020PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Crew AJ, Clark J, Fisher C, Gill S, Grimer R, Chand A, Shipley J, Gusterson BA, Cooper CS (1995) Fusion of SYT to two genes, SSX1 and SSX2, encoding proteins with homology to the Kruppel-associated box in human synovial sarcoma. EMBO J 14:2333–2340PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Czekalla R, Fuchs M, Stölzle A, Nerlich A, Poremba C, Schaefer K-L, Weirich G, Höfler H, Schneller F, Peschel C, Siewert JR, Schepp W (2004) Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the stomach in a 14-year-old boy: a case report. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 16:1391–1400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dabska M (1977) Parachordoma: a new clinicopathologic entity. Cancer 40:1586–1592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Daly BD, Cheung H, Gaines PA, Bradley MJ, Metreweli C (1992) Imaging of alveolar soft part sarcoma. Clin Radiol 46:253–256. doi: 10.1016/S0009-9260(05)80165-5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dardick I (1995) Myoepithelioma: definitions and diagnostic criteria. Ultrastruct Pathol 19:335–345. doi: 10.3109/01913129509021906 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    De Beuckeleer LH, De Schepper AM, Vandevenne JE (2000) MR imaging of clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma of the soft parts): a multicenter correlative MRI-pathology study of 21 cases and literature review. Skeletal Radiol 29:187–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    De Comas AM, Deavers MT, Raymond AK, Madewell JE, Lewis VO (2011) Intraneural parachordoma of the arm with regional metastases. Skeletal Radiol 40:943–946. doi: 10.1007/s00256-011-1151-1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dehner LP (1986) Peripheral and central primitive neuroectodermal tumors. A nosologic concept seeking a consensus. Arch Pathol Lab Med 110:997–1005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dehner LP (1993) Primitive neuroectodermal tumor and Ewing’s sarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol 17:1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Desy NM, Bernstein M, Nahal A, Aziz M, Kenan S (2012) Primary perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm (PEComa) of bone: report of two cases and review of the literature. Skeletal Radiol 41:1469–1474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Drilon AD, Popat S, Bhuchar G, D’Adamo DR, Keohan ML, Fisher C, Antonescu CR, Singer S, Brennan MF, Judson I, Maki RG (2008) Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma: a retrospective review from 2 referral centers emphasizing long-term outcomes with surgery and chemotherapy. Cancer 113:3364–3371. doi: 10.1002/cncr.23978 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ekelund L, Herrlin K, Rydholm A (1982) Computed tomography of intramuscular myxoma. Skeletal Radiol 9:14–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Enzinger FM (1965) Clear-cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses – an analysis of 21 cases. Cancer 18:1163–1174Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Enzinger FM, Shiraki M (1972) Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. An analysis of 34 cases. Hum Pathol 3:421–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Enzinger FM, Weiss SW (1995) Synovial sarcoma. In: Enzinger FM, Weiss SW (eds) Soft tissue tumors, 3rd edn. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 735–786Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Enzinger FM, Weiss SW (1995) Malignant soft tissue tumors of uncertain type. In: Enzinger FM, Weiss SW (eds) Soft tissue tumors, 3rd edn. Mosby, St Louis, pp 1067–1093Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Enzinger FM, Weiss SW (1995) Primitive neuroectodermal tumors and related lesions. In: Enzinger FM, Weiss SW (eds) Soft tissue tumors, 3rd edn. Mosby, St Louis, pp 929–964Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Farmakis SG, Siegel MJ (2015) Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor of the tibia with oncogenic osteomalacia in a teenager. Pediatr Radiol 45:1423–1426. doi: 10.1007/s00247-015-3301-4 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Faubert C, Inniger R (1991) MRI and pathological findings in two cases of Askin tumors. Neuroradiology 33:277–281. doi: 10.1007/BF00588237 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ferraz MP, Watanabe T, Sado HN, Ono CR, Buchpiguel CA, Correa PHS, Martin RM (2013) Concordance between whole body scintigraphy 111In-Octreotide and 99mTc-Sestamibi uptake in the detection of four tumor-induced osteomalacia cases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab jc. 2013–3563. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-3563
  51. 51.
    Fetsch JF, Laskin WB, Michal M, Remotti F, Heffner D, Ellis G, Furlong M, Miettinen M (2004) Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 21 cases with data supporting reclassification as a branchial anlage mixed tumor. Am J Surg Pathol 28:1360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fetsch JF, Laskin WB, Miettinen M (2001) Superficial acral fibromyxoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 37 cases of a distinctive soft tissue tumor with a predilection for the fingers and toes. Hum Pathol 32:704–714. doi: 10.1053/hupa.2001.25903 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fisher C, Miettinen M (1997) Parachordoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of four cases of an unusual soft tissue neoplasm. Ann Diagn Pathol 1:3–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fletcher CDM, Unni KK, Mertens F (2012) WHO classification of tumours of soft tissue and bone. IARC Press, LyonGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Folpe AL, Agoff SN, Willis J (1999) Parachordoma is immunohistochemically and cytogenetically distinct from axial chordoma and extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol 23:1059PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Folpe AL, Goodman ZD, Ishak KG, Paulino AF, Taboada EM, Meehan SA, Weiss SW (2000) Clear cell myomelanocytic tumor of the falciform ligament/ligamentum teres: a novel member of the perivascular epithelioid clear cell family of tumors with a predilection for children and young adults. Am J Surg Pathol 24:1239–1246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Folpe AL, McKenney JK, Li Z, Smith SJ, Weiss SW (2002) Clear cell myomelanocytic tumor of the thigh: report of a unique case. Am J Surg Pathol 26:809–812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Folpe AL, Weiss SW (2003) Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor of soft parts: a clinicopathologic study of 70 cases With emphasis on atypical and malignant variants. Am J Surg Pathol 27:421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fujiwara M, Yuba Y, Wada A, Ozawa T, Tanaka T (2014) Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor of soft parts: report of a case and review of the literature. J Dermatol 31:419–423. doi: 10.1111/j.1346-8138.2004.tb00696.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gaffey MJ, Mills SE, Askin FB, Ross GW, Sale GE, Kulander BG, Visscher DW, Yousem SA, Colby TV (1990) Clear cell tumor of the lung. A clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of eight cases. Am J Surg Pathol 14:248–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Garcés-Iñigo EF, Leung R, Sebire NJ, McHugh K (2009) Extrarenal rhabdoid tumours outside the central nervous system in infancy. Pediatr Radiol 39:817–822. doi: 10.1007/s00247-009-1288-4 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gerald WL, Miller HK, Battifora H, Miettinen M, Silva EG, Rosai J (1991) Intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round-cell tumor: report of 19 cases of a distinctive type of high-grade polyphenotypic malignancy affecting young individuals. Am J Surg Pathol 15:499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Glass-Royal MC, Nelson MC, Albert F, Lack EE, Bogumill GP (1989) Case report 557. Skeletal Radiol 18:392–398. doi: 10.1007/BF00361433 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gonzalez-Crussi F, Wolfson SL, Misugi K, Nakajima T (1984) Peripheral neuroectodermal tumors of the chest wall in childhood. Cancer 54:2519–2527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Granter SR, Weilbaecher KN, Quigley C, Fletcher CD, Fisher DE (2001) Clear cell sarcoma shows immunoreactivity for microphthalmia transcription factor: further evidence for melanocytic differentiation. Mod Pathol 14:6–9. doi: 10.1038/modpathol.3880249 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hanna S, Kaste S, Jenkins J, Hewan-Lowe K (2002) Epithelioid sarcoma: clinical, MR imaging and pathologic findings. Skeletal Radiol 31:400–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Harish S, Polson A, Morris P, Malata C, Griffiths M, Bearcroft PWP (2006) Giant atypical ossifying fibromyxoid tumour of the calf. Skeletal Radiol 35:248–253. doi: 10.1007/s00256-005-0014-z PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hashimoto H (1995) Incidence of soft tissue sarcomas in adults. In: Schmidt D, Harms D (eds) Soft tissue tumors. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    El Hayek M, Trad O, Islam S (2004) Congenital peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor refractory to treatment. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 26:770–772PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hermann G, Abdelwahab IF, Klein MJ, Kenan S, Lewis MM (1993) Case report 796. Alveolar soft part sarcoma. Skeletal Radiol 22:386–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hermann G, Abdelwahab IF, Miller TT, Klein MJ, Lewis MM (1992) Tumour and tumour-like conditions of the soft tissue: magnetic resonance imaging features differentiating benign from malignant masses. BJR 65:14–20. doi: 10.1259/0007-1285-65-769-14 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hodler J, YU SJ, Steinert HC, Resnick D (1995) MR imaging versus alternative imaging techniques. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 3:591–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Horiguchi Y, Nakashima J, Ishii T, Hata J, Tazaki H (1994) Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the retroperitoneal cavity. Urology 44:127–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hornick JL, Fletcher C (2003) Myoepithelial tumors of soft tissue – a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 101 cases with evaluation of prognostic parameters. Am J Surg Pathol 27:1183–1196Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hottenrott G, Mentzel T, Peters A, Schröder A, Katenkamp D (1999) Intravascular (“intimal”) epithelioid angiosarcoma: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of three cases. Virchows Arch 435:473–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Huang C-C, Cheng S-M (2012) Clinical and radiological presentations of pelvic parachordoma. Rare Tumors 4:13–15. doi: 10.4081/rt.2012.e5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ibarburen C, Haberman JJ, Zerhouni EA (1996) Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors. CT and MRI evaluation. Eur J Radiol 21:225–232. doi: 10.1016/0720-048X(95)00731-5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ieremia E, Robson A (2014) Cutaneous PEComa: a rare entity to consider in an unusual site. Am J Dermatopathol 36:e198–e201. doi: 10.1097/DAD.0000000000000041 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Iwasko N, Steinbach L, Disler D, Pathria M, Hottya G (2002) Imaging findings in Mazabraud’s syndrome: seven new cases. Skeletal Radiol 31:81–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Jo VY (2015) Myoepithelial tumors: an update. Surg Pathol Clin 8:445–466. doi: 10.1016/j.path.2015.05.005 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Jones BC, Sundaram M, Kransdorf MJ (1993) Synovial sarcoma: MR imaging findings in 34 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 161:827–830. doi: 10.2214/ajr.161.4.8396848 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Justin Wong SB, Wee A, Puhaindran ME, Pang B, Lee VKM (2015) Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma with prominent myxoid stroma: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol 37:623–631. doi: 10.1097/DAD.0000000000000263 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kaffe I, Naor H, Buchner A (1997) Clinical and radiological features of odontogenic myxoma of the jaws. Dentomaxillofacial Radiol 26:299–303. doi: 10.1038/sj.dmfr.4600261 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kalil RK (2015) Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor. In: Tumors and tumor-like lesions of bone. Springer London, London, pp 589–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kapoor N, Shinagare AB, Jagannathan JP, Shah SH, Krajewski KM, Hornick JL, Ramaiya NH (2014) Clinical and radiologic features of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma including initial presentation, local recurrence, and metastases. Radiol Oncol 48:235–242. doi: 10.2478/raon-2014-0005 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kheir E, Stephen L, Nortje C, van Rensburg LJ, Titinchi F (2013) The imaging characteristics of odontogenic myxoma and a comparison of three different imaging modalities. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 116:492–502. doi: 10.1016/j.oooo.2013.05.018 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kilpatrick SE, Ward WG, Mozes M, Miettinen M, Fukunaga M, Fletcher C (1995) Atypical and malignant variants of ossifying fibromyxoid tumor – clinicopathological analysis of 6 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 19:1039–1046Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kitagawa Y, Ishihara Y, Hayashi M, Kim Y, Fujii N, Ito H (2011) Mazabraud syndrome associated with McCune–Albright syndrome. J Orthop Sci 16:129–132. doi: 10.1007/s00776-010-0004-4 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Koch M, Freundl AJ, Agaimy A, Kiesewetter F, Künzel J, Cicha I, Alexiou C (2015) Atypical fibroxanthoma – histological diagnosis, immunohistochemical markers and concepts of therapy. Anticancer Res 35:5717–5735Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kransdorf MJ (1995) Malignant soft-tissue tumors in a large referral population – distribution of diagnoses by age, sex, and location. AJR Am J Roentgenol 164:129–134. doi: 10.2214/ajr.164.1.7998525
  91. 91.
    Kransdorf MJ, Moser RPJ, Jelinek JS, Weiss SW, Buetow PC, Berrey BH (1989) Intramuscular Myxoma: MR features. J Comput Assist Tomogr 13:836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kuang P (2013) CT findings of pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT) of soft parts of the neck. Jpn J Radiol 31:204–207. doi: 10.1007/s11604-012-0157-5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kurashima K, Muramoto S, Ohta Y, Fujimura M, Matsuda T (1994) Peripheral neuroectodermal tumor presenting pleural effusion. Intern Med 33:783–785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    L’Hostis H, Deminiere C, Ferriere J-M, Coindre J-M (1999) Renal angiomyolipoma: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and follow-up study of 46 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 23:1011PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lao IW, Yu L, Wang J (2015) Malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the femur: a case report and literature review. Diagn Pathol 10:54. doi: 10.1186/s13000-015-0292-2 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lee S, Joo KB, Park C-K, Kim T-S, Bae J (2013) A case of atypical fibroxanthoma of subungual type: ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Clin Imaging 37:155–158. doi: 10.1016/j.clinimag.2012.01.035 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Li C-S, Chan WP, Chen W-T, Chang C-P, Shih L-S, Chen R-C, Tu H-Y (2004) MRI of angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma. Skeletal Radiol 33:604–608. doi: 10.1007/s00256-004-0769-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lieberman PH, Brennan MF, Kimmel M, Erlandson RA, Garin-Chesa P, Flehinger BY (1989) Alveolar soft-part sarcoma. A clinico-pathologic study of half a century. Cancer 63:1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Limdiwala P, Shah J (2015) Odontogenic myxoma of maxilla: a review discussion with two case reports. Contemp Clin Dent 6:131–136. doi: 10.4103/0976-237X.149310 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Llauger J, Perez C, Coscojuela P, Palmer J, Puig J (1990) Aggressive angiomyxoma of pelvic soft tissue: CT appearance. Urol Radiol 12:25–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lockyer MG, Rosen DG (2015) Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma presenting as a plantar fibroma: case report and review of the literature. Anticancer Res 35:6171–6174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Lois JF, Fischer HJ, Mirra JM, Gomes AS (1986) Angiography of histopathologic variants of synovial sarcoma. Acta Radiol Diagn (Stockh) 27:449–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Lopez-Ben R, Siegal GP, Pitt MJ, Jaffe KA (1999) Osteosarcoma in a patient with McCune-Albright syndrome and Mazabraud’s syndrome. Skeletal Radiol 28:522–526. doi: 10.1007/s002560050556 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lorigan JG, O’Keeffe FN, Evans HL, Wallace S (1989) The radiologic manifestations of alveolar soft-part sarcoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 153:335–339. doi: 10.2214/ajr.153.2.335 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    López L, Vélez R (2016) Atypical fibroxanthoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 140:376–379. doi: 10.5858/arpa.2014-0495-RS PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Luna A, Martinez S, Bossen E (2005) Magnetic resonance imaging of intramuscular myxoma with histological comparison and a review of the literature. Skeletal Radiol 34:19–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Marzano L, Failoni S, Gallazzi M, Garbagna P (2004) The role of diagnostic imaging in synovial sarcoma. Our experience. Radiol Med 107:533–540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Massengill A, Seeger L, Yao L, Mirra J, Eckardt J (1995) Malignant mesenchymoma of the thigh. Skeletal Radiol 24:301–304. doi: 10.1007/BF00198421 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Matsui K, Tatsuguchi A, Valencia J, Yu ZX, Bechtle J, Beasley MB, Avila N, Travis WD, Moss J, Ferrans VJ (2000) Extrapulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): clinicopathologic features in 22 cases. Hum Pathol 31:1242–1248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Matsumoto K, Yamamoto T (2002) Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor of soft parts: a case report and literature review. Pathol Int 52:664–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Meis-Kindblom JM, Bergh P, Gunterberg B, Kindblom LG (1999) Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma: a reappraisal of its morphologic spectrum and prognostic factors based on 117 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 23:636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Michal M, Miettinen M (1999) Myoepitheliomas of the skin and soft tissues. Virchows Arch 434:393–400. doi: 10.1007/s004280050358 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Miguez Gonzalez J, Dominguez Oronoz R, Lozano Arranz P, Calaf Forn F, Barrios Sanchez P, Garcia Jimenez A (2015) Aggressive angiomyxoma: imaging findings in 3 cases with clinicopathological correlation and review of the literature. J Comput Assist Tomogr 39:914–921. doi: 10.1097/RCT.0000000000000305 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Morton MJ, Berquist TH, McLeod RA, Unni KK, Sim FH (1991) MR imaging of synovial sarcoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 156:337–340. doi: 10.2214/ajr.156.2.1846054 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Murphey M, Kransdorf M, Smith S (1999) Imaging of soft tissue neoplasms in the adult: malignant tumors. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 3:39–58. doi: 10.1055/s-2008-1080050 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Murphey MD, McRae GA, Fanburg-Smith JC, Temple HT, Levine AM, Aboulafia AJ (2002) Imaging of soft-tissue myxoma with emphasis on CT and MR and comparison of radiologic and pathologic findings. Radiology 225:215–224. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2251011627 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Murphey MD, Smith WS, Smith SE, Kransdorf MJ, Temple HT (1999) From the archives of the AFIP. Radiographics 19:1253–1280. doi: 10.1148/radiographics.19.5.g99se101253 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Nakanishi K, Sakai M, Tanaka H, Tsuboi H, Hashimoto J, Hashimoto N, Tomiyama N (2013) Whole-body MR imaging in detecting phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (PMT) in tumor-induced hypophosphatemic osteomalacia. Magn Reson Med Sci 12:47–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Nash A, Stout AP (1961) Malignant mesenchymomas in children. Cancer 14:524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Nielsen GP, O’Connell JX, Rosenberg AE (1998) Intramuscular myxoma: a clinicopathologic study of 51 cases with emphasis on hypercellular and hypervascular variants. Am J Surg Pathol 22:1222–1227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    O’Driscoll D, Athanasian E, Hameed M, Hwang S (2015) Radiological imaging features and clinicopathological correlation of hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor: experience in a single tertiary cancer center. Skeletal Radiol 44(5):641–648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    O’Keeffe F, Lorigan JG, Wallace S (1990) Radiological features of extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma. BJR 63:456–460. doi: 10.1259/0007-1285-63-750-456 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    O’SULLIVAN PJ, HARRIS AC, Munk PL (2008) Radiological features of synovial cell sarcoma. BJR 81:346–356. doi: 10.1259/bjr/28335824 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Oda Y, Tsuneyoshi M (2006) Extrarenal rhabdoid tumors of soft tissue: clinicopathological and molecular genetic review and distinction from other soft‐tissue sarcomas with rhabdoid features. Pathol Int 56:287–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Ogose A, Otsuka H, Morita T, Kobayashi H, Hirata Y (1998) Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor resembling parosteal osteosarcoma. Skeletal Radiol 27:578–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Okamoto S, Hisaoka M, Meis-Kindblom JM (2002) Juxta-articular myxoma and intramuscular myxoma are two distinct entities. Virchows Arch 440:12–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Peres E, Mattoo TK, Poulik J, Warrier I (2005) Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the uterus in a renal allograft patient: a case report. Pediatr Blood Cancer 44:283–285. doi: 10.1002/pbc.20237 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Peterson KK, Renfrew DL, Feddersen RM, Buckwalter JA, el-Khoury GY (1991) Magnetic resonance imaging of myxoid containing tumors. Skeletal Radiol 20:245–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Prat J, Woodruff JM, Marcove RC (1978) Epithelioid sarcoma: an analysis of 22 cases indicating the prognostic significance of vascular invasion and regional lymph node metastasis. Cancer 41:1472–1487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Radin DR, Ralls PW, Boswell WD, Lundell C, Halls JM (1984) Alveolar soft part sarcoma: CT findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 8:344–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Rafal RB, Nichols JN, Markisz JA (1995) Pulmonary-artery sarcoma – diagnosis and postoperative follow-up with gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic-resonance-imaging. Mayo Clin Proc 70:173–176. doi: 10.1016/S0025-6196(11)64285-7
  132. 132.
    Rangheard AS, Vanel D, Viala J, Schwaab G, Casiraghi O, Sigal R (2001) Synovial sarcomas of the head and neck: CT and MR imaging findings of eight patients. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 22:851–857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Reyes J, Mexia MA, Tapia DQ, Aramburu JA (1997) Extensively calcified synovial sarcoma. Skeletal Radiol 26:671–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Saifuddin A, Robertson RJH, Smith SEW (1991) The radiology of Askin tumours. Clin Radiol 43:19–23. doi: 10.1016/S0009-9260(05)80348-4 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Sakurai H, Kaji M, Mukai K, Suemasu K (2010) Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma—a truly rare neoplasm: report of a case. Surg Today 40:146–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Schaffler G, Raith J, Ranner G, Weybora W, Jeserschek R (1997) Radiographic appearance of an ossifying fibromyxoid tumor of soft parts. Skeletal Radiol 26:615–618. doi: 10.1007/s002560050296 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Schmidt D, Herrmann C, Jürgens H, Harms D (1991) Malignant peripheral neuroectodermal tumor and its necessary distinction from Ewing’s Sarcoma. A report from the kiel pediatric tumor registry. Cancer 68:2251–2259. doi: 10.1002/1097-0142(19911115)68:10<2251::AID-CNCR2820681025>3.0.CO;2-X PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Schnarkowski P, Peterfy CG, Johnston JO, Weidner N (1996) Clear cell sarcoma mimicking peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Skeletal Radiol 25:197–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Seelig MH, Klingler PJ, Oldenburg WA, Blackshear JL (1998) Angiosarcoma of the aorta: report of a case and review of the literature. J Vasc Surg 28:732–737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Shaw GR, Lais CJ (1993) Fatal intravascular synovial sarcoma in a 31-year-old woman. Hum Pathol 24:809–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Silver WP, Harrelson JM, Scully SP (2002) Intramuscular Myxoma: a clinicopathologic study of 17 patients. Clin Orthop Relat Res 403:191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Smith MEF, Fisher C, Weiss SW (1996) Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor of soft parts: a low-grade neoplasm resembling neurilemoma. Am J Surg Pathol 20:21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Solomon DA, Antonescu CR, Link TM, O’Donnell RJ, Folpe AL, Horvai AE (2013) Hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor, not an entirely benign entity. Am J Surg Pathol 37:1627–1630. doi: 10.1097/PAS.0b013e31829ff078 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Spielmann A, Janzen DL, O’Connell JX, Munk PL (1997) Intraneural synovial sarcoma. Skeletal Radiol 26:677–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Stefanko J, Turnbull AD, Helson L, Lieberman P, Martini N (1988) Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the chest wall. J Surg Oncol 37:33–37. doi: 10.1002/jso.2930370110 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Subhawong TK, Subhawong AP, Montgomery EA, Fayad LM (2012) Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor: imaging findings. Skeletal Radiol 41:1621–1626. doi: 10.1007/s00256-012-1443-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Sundaram M, McDonald DJ, MERENDA G (1989) Intramuscular Myxoma – a rare but important association with fibrous dysplasia of bone. AJR Am J Roentgenol 153:107–108. doi: 10.2214/ajr.153.1.107
  148. 148.
    Surov A, Weber M-A (2014) Malignant and benign lesions of the skeletal musculature. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 35:290–307. doi: 10.1053/j.sult.2013.12.004 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Tan Y, Zhang H, Xiao E-H (2013) Perivascular epithelioid cell tumour: dynamic CT, MRI and clinicopathological characteristics – analysis of 32 cases and review of the literature. Clin Radiol 68:555–561. doi: 10.1016/j.crad.2012.10.021
  150. 150.
    Tanida S, Tanioka F, Inukai M, Yoshioka N, Saida Y, Imai K, Nakamura T, Kitamura H, Sugimura H (2000) Ewing’s sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) arising in the omentum as a multilocular cyst with intracystic hemorrhage. J Gastroenterol 35:933–940. doi: 10.1007/s005350070009 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Tateishi U, Hasegawa T, Beppu Y, Satake M, Moriyama N (2004) Synovial sarcoma of the soft tissues: prognostic significance of imaging features. J Comput Assist Tomogr 28:140–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Tateishi U, Hasegawa T, Kusumoto M, Oyama T, Ishikawa H, Moriyama N (2002) Desmoplastic small round cell tumor: imaging findings associated with clinicopathologic features. J Comput Assist Tomogr 26:579–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Tateishi U, Hasegawa T, Nojima T, Takegami T, Arai Y (2005) MRI features of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Skeletal Radiol 35:27–33. doi: 10.1007/s00256-005-0021-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Tseng CA, Pan YS, Su YC, Wu DC, Jan CM (2004) Extrarenal retroperitoneal angiomyolipoma: case report and review of the literature. Abdom Imaging 29:721–723PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    van Rijswijk CS, Hogendoorn PC, Taminiau AH, Bloem JL (2001) Synovial sarcoma: dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging features. Skeletal Radiol 30:25–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Varikatt W, Soper J, Simmons G, Dave C, Munk J, Bonar F (2008) Superficial acral fibromyxoma: a report of two cases with radiological findings. Skeletal Radiol 37:499–503. doi: 10.1007/s00256-008-0454-3 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Versteege I, Sévenet N, Lange J, Rousseau-Merck MF, Ambros P, Handgretinger R, Aurias A, Delattre O (1998) Truncating mutations of hSNF5/INI1 in aggressive paediatric cancer. Nature 94:203–206. doi: 10.1038/28212
  158. 158.
    Vilanova JC, Woertler K, Narváez JA, Barceló J, Martínez SJ, Villalón M, Miró J (2006) Soft-tissue tumors update: MR imaging features according to the WHO classification. Eur Radiol 17:125–138. doi: 10.1007/s00330-005-0130-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Wakely PE Jr, Bos GD, Mayerson J (2005) The cytopathology of soft tissue mxyomas: ganglia, juxta-articular myxoid lesions, and intramuscular myxoma. Am J Clin Pathol 123:858–865. doi: 10.1309/39YX-94KX-T0T2-CNUX CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Winer-Muram HT, Kauffman WM, Gronemeyer SA, Jennings SG (1993) Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the chest wall (Askin tumors): CT and MR findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 161:265–268. doi: 10.2214/ajr.161.2.8392786 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Wirth WA, Leavitt D, Enzinger FM (1971) Multiple intramuscular myxomas. Another extraskeletal manifestation of fibrous dysplasia. Cancer 27:1167–1173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Xu Q, Xu K, Yang C, Zhang X, Meng Y, Quan Q (2011) Askin tumor: four case reports and a review of the literature. Cancer Imaging 11:184–188. doi: 10.1102/1470-7330.2011.0025 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Yaghoobian J, Zinn D, Ramanathan K, Pinck RL, Hilfer J (1987) Ultrasound and computed tomographic findings in aggressive angiomyxoma of the uterine cervix. J Ultrasound Med 6:209–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Zoccali C, Teori G, Prencipe U, Erba F (2009) Mazabraud’s syndrome: a new case and review of the literature. Int Orthop 33:605–610. doi: 10.1007/s00264-007-0483-x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Moretti VM, Brooks J, Ogilvie CM (2010) Case report: hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous lesion: a clinicopathologic characterization – springer. Clin Orthop Relat Res 468(10):2808–13. doi: 10.1007/s11999-010-1242-7. Epub 2010 Feb 2
  166. 166.
    Petrey WB, LeGallo RD, Fox MG, Gaskin CM (2011) Imaging characteristics of angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma of bone. Skeletal Radiol 40:233–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Ogose A et al (2001) Recurrent malignant variant of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor with oncogenic osteomalacia. Skeletal Radiol 30:99–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon David Sprengel
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marc-André Weber
    • 1
  • Hendrik  R. Degryse
    • 2
  • Filip M. Vanhoenacker
    • 3
  1. 1.Clinic of Diagnostic and Interventional RadiologyUniversity Hospital HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyAZ KLINA, Augustijnslei, Brasschaat and University HospitalEdegemBelgium
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyAZ Sint-Maarten, Duffel-Mechelen, University Hospital Antwerp, University of Ghent, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesEdegemBelgium

Personalised recommendations