World Jewish Population, 2016

Chapter
Part of the American Jewish Year Book book series (AJYB, volume 116)

Abstract

At the beginning of 2016, the world’s Jewish population was estimated at 14,412,200—an increase of 100,000 (0.70 %) over the 2014 revised estimate. As the world’s total population increased by 1.38 % in 2015, world Jewry increased at about half the general population growth rate. Jewish population was highly concentrated in two countries, Israel (44 % of the world total) and the US (40 % of the world total), 10 % lived in Europe, 5 % in other North America and Latin America, and 2 % in other continents. A steady demographic increase in Israel was matched by stagnation or decline elsewhere which was generated by low birth rates, frequent intermarriage, aging, and emigration. Most Jews are increasingly found in just a few more developed and democratic countries, with tens of communities now below a sufficient critical mass needed to sustain community institutions. This chapter carefully reviews different approaches to Jewish population definitions, the different sources available, and their highly variable quality and reliability. The critically important Jewish-Arab population balance in Israel and Palestine is analyzed.

Keywords

World Jewry Jewish population Jewish demography Who is a Jew Data sources and quality Age composition International migration Size and density 

List of Sources1

  1. Adams, S.M., E. Bosch, P.L. Balaresque, S.J. Ballereau, A.C. Lee, E. Arroyo, A.N. López-Parra, M. Aler, M.S. Gisbert Grifo, M. Brion, A. Carracedo, J. Lavinha, B. Martínez-Jarreta, L. Quintana-Murci, A. Picornell, M. Ramon, K. Skorecki, D.M. Behar, F. Calafell, and M.A. Jobling. 2008. The genetic legacy of religious diversity and intolerance: Paternal lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula. The American Journal of Human Genetics 83(6): 725–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler, S. 2004. Emigration among immigrants from Argentina that arrived during the period 1.1.89–31.12.02. Jerusalem: State of Israel Ministry of Immigrant Absorption, Division of Planning and Research.Google Scholar
  3. Amit, K., and S. DellaPergola. 2016. Demography and migration in Israel, Studies in Israel Society. Berlin: Bundeszentrale (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  4. Amit, K., A. Borowski, and S. DellaPergola. 2010. Demography: Trends and composition. In Immigration and nation building: Australia and Israel compared, ed. A. Markus and M. Semyonov, 15–45. Cheltenham/Northampton: Edward Elgar/Monash University.Google Scholar
  5. Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg. 2012. Statistisches Jahrbuch Berlin 2012. Berlin: Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg.Google Scholar
  6. Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg. 2014. Statistisches Jahrbuch Berlin 2014. Berlin: Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg.Google Scholar
  7. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2002. Population census 2001. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
  8. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2007. Population census 2006. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
  9. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2012. Population census 2011. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
  10. Austria, Statistik. 2003. Volkszählung 2001: Wohnbevölkerung nach Religion und Staatsangehörigkeit für Bundesländer. Wien: Statistik Austria.Google Scholar
  11. Bachi, R. 1976. Population trends of world Jewry. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University, Institute of Contemporary Jewry.Google Scholar
  12. Bachi, R. 1977. The population of Israel. Paris/Jerusalem: CICRED/The Hebrew University and Demographic Center, Prime Minister’s Office.Google Scholar
  13. Barack Fishman, S. 2004. Double or nothing? Jewish families and mixed marriage. Hanover/London: Brandeis University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bass, D. (2011). Conversions in Israel. Personal communication.Google Scholar
  15. Behar, D.M., M.F. Hammer, D. Garrigan, R. Villems, B. Bonné-Tamir, M. Richards, D. Gurwitz, D. Rosengarten, M. Kaplan, S. DellaPergola, L. Quintana-Murci, and K. Skorecki. 2004. MtDNA evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the early history of the Ashkenazi Jewish population. European Journal of Human Genetics 12: 355–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Behar, D.M., B. Yunusbayev, M. Metspalu, E. Metspalu, S. Rosset, J. Parik, S. Rootsi, G. Chaubey, I. Kutuev, G. Yudkovsk, E.K. Khusnutdinova, O. Balanovsky, O. Semino, L. Pereira, D. Comas, D. Gurwitz, B. Bonné-Tamir, T. Parfitt, M.F. Hammer, K. Skorecki, and R. Villems. 2010. The genome-wide structure of the Jewish people. Nature 466: 238–242, 9 June. http://www.nature.com/dofinder/10.1038/nature09103, 1–6.
  17. Belstat. 2009. Population Census of Belarus 2009. http://belstat.gov.by/homep/ru/perepic/2009/vihod_tables/5.8-0.pdf.
  18. Ben Rafael, E. 2013. Belgium. In Perceptions and experiences of antisemitism among Jews in selected EU member states, ed. L. Staetsky, J. Boyd, E. Ben-Rafael, E. Cohen, S. DellaPergola, L. Dencik, O. Glöckner, and A. Kovács, 93–94. London: JPR/Institute for Jewish Policy Research; Ipsos MORI.Google Scholar
  19. Berenstein, N., and R. Porzecanski. 2001. Perfil de los egresados de la Red Formal de Educación Judía Uruguaya. Montevideo: Fundación L.A. Pincus para la educación Judía en la Diáspora, Israel; Consejo de Educación Judía del Uruguay.Google Scholar
  20. Berger, G., M. Tchimino, S. Korinfeld, and V. Zuñiga. 1995. Estudio Socio-Demográfico de la Comunidad Judía de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago. Santiago/Buenos Aires: Comité Representativo de las Entidades Judías de Chile-American Joint Distribution Committee, Oficina Buenos Aires-Area Latinoamericana.Google Scholar
  21. Bokser Liwerant, J. 2013. Latin American Jews in the United States: Community and belonging in times of transnationalism. Contemporary Jewry 33(1–2): 121–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Boyd, J., and L. Staetsky. 2013. United Kingdom. In Perceptions and experiences of antisemitism among Jews in selected EU member states, ed. L. Staetsky, J. Boyd, E. Ben-Rafael, E. Cohen, S. DellaPergola, L. Dencik, O. Glöckner, and A. Kovács, 121–124. London: JPR/Institute for Jewish Policy Research; Ipsos MORI.Google Scholar
  23. Bruk, S. 2006. The Jews of South Africa 2005 – Report on a research study. Cape Town: South African Jewish Board of Deputies.Google Scholar
  24. Campelli, E. 2013. Comunità va cercando, ch’è sí cara … Sociologia dell'Italia ebraica. Milano: Franco Angeli.Google Scholar
  25. Campelli, E. 2016. Le comunità ebraiche italiane: Dati, processi, atteggiamenti. In Sociologia degli ebrei italiani, ed. G. Pacifici. Milano: Franco Angeli.Google Scholar
  26. Choshen, M., E. Bluer, Y. Assaf-Shapira, and I. Doron (eds.). 2010. Statistical yearbook of Jerusalem 2009/2010, 24. Jerusalem: Jerusalem Municipality and the Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies.Google Scholar
  27. Choshen, M., I. Doron, Y. Assaf-Shapira, and E. Bluer (eds.). 2012. Statistical yearbook of Jerusalem 2012, 26. Jerusalem: Jerusalem Municipality and the Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies.Google Scholar
  28. Cohen, E.H. 2005. Les touristes de France en Israël 2004. Jerusalem: Unpublished Paper.Google Scholar
  29. Cohen, E.H. 2007. Heureux comme Juifs en France? Étude sociologique. Jerusalem: Elkana et Akadem.Google Scholar
  30. Cohen, Y. 2009. Migration to and from Israel. Contemporary Jewry 29(2): 115–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cohen, E.H. 2013a. France. In Perceptions and experiences of antisemitism among Jews in selected EU member states, ed. L. Staetsky, J. Boyd, E. Ben-Rafael, E. Cohen, S. DellaPergola, L. Dencik, O. Glöckner, and A. Kovács, 95–97. London: JPR/Institute for Jewish Policy Research; Ipsos MORI.Google Scholar
  32. Cohen, E.H. 2013b. Les juifs de France: Un tournant? Ramat Gan: Bar Ilan University.Google Scholar
  33. Cohen, E.H., and M. Ifergan. 2003. Les Juifs de France: Valeurs et identité. Paris: Fonds Social Juif Unifié.Google Scholar
  34. Cohen, Y., and I. Kogan. 2005. Jewish immigration from the Former Soviet Union to Germany and Israel in the 1990s. Leo Baeck Institute Year Book 50: 249–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cohen, S.M., J.B. Ukeles, and R. Miller. 2012. Jewish community study of New York, 2011. Comprehensive report. New York: UJA Federation of New York.Google Scholar
  36. Cohen-Weisz, S. 2010. Like the Phoenix raising from the ashes: Jewish identity and communal reconstruction in Austria and Germany. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University, Unpublished PhD dissertation.Google Scholar
  37. Cohn, S. 2003. Résultats elections legislatives (unpublished manuscript). Brussels.Google Scholar
  38. Comité Central Israelita de México. 2000. Estudio sobre tendencias de la educación judía en México. Censo socio-demográfico de la comunidad judía de México. México: Comité Central Israelita de México.Google Scholar
  39. Comité Central Israelita de México. 2006. Estudio poblacional de la comunidad judía de México. México: Comité Central Israelita de México.Google Scholar
  40. Corinaldi, M. 1998. Jewish identity, Chapter 2. In Jewish identity: The case of Ethiopian Jewry, ed. M. Corinaldi. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, Hebrew University.Google Scholar
  41. Corinaldi, M. 2001. The enigma of Jewish identity: The law of return, theory and practice. Srigim-Lion: Nevo (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  42. Cytto, O. 2007. Jewish identification in contemporary Spain – A European case study. Jerusalem: European Forum at The Hebrew University, Helmut Kohl Institute for European Studies in collaboration with Konrad Adenauer Stiftung.Google Scholar
  43. Dashefsky, A., and Z.I. Heller. 2008. Intermarriage and Jewish journeys in the United States. Newton Centre: The National Center for Jewish Policy Studies at Hebrew College.Google Scholar
  44. Decol, R. 1999. Imigraçoes urbanas para o Brasil: o caso dos Judeus. Campinas: Universidade Estadual, unpublished PhD dissertation.Google Scholar
  45. Decol, R.D. 2009. A demographic profile of Brazilian Jewry. Contemporary Jewry 29(2): 99–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. DellaPergola, S. 1975. The Italian Jewish population study: Demographic characteristics and trends. In Studies in Jewish demography: Survey for 1969–1971, ed. U.O. Schmelz, P. Glikson, and S.J. Gould, 60–97. Jerusalem/London: The Hebrew University, Institute of Contemporary Jewry/Institute of Jewish Affairs.Google Scholar
  47. DellaPergola, S. 1987. Demographic trends of Latin American Jewry. In The Jewish presence in Latin America, ed. J. Laikin Elkin and G.W. Merkx, 85–133. Boston: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  48. DellaPergola, S. 1992. Recent trends in Jewish marriage. In World Jewish population: Trends and policies, ed. S. DellaPergola and L. Cohen, 56–92. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University, The Institute of Contemporary Jewry.Google Scholar
  49. DellaPergola, S. 1993. Jews in the European community: Sociodemographic trends and challenges. American Jewish Year Book 93, 25–82. New York: American Jewish Committee.Google Scholar
  50. DellaPergola, S. 1995. Changing cores and peripheries: Fifty years in socio-demographic perspective. In Terms of survival: The Jewish world since 1945, ed. R.S. Wistrich, 13–43. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. DellaPergola, S. 1999. World Jewry beyond 2000: Demographic prospects. Oxford: Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies.Google Scholar
  52. DellaPergola, S. 2001. Some fundamentals of Jewish demographic history. In Papers in Jewish demography 1997, ed. S. DellaPergola and J. Even, 11–33. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University.Google Scholar
  53. DellaPergola, S. 2002. Demography. In The Oxford handbook of Jewish studies, ed. M. Goodman, 797–823. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. DellaPergola, S. 2003a. Jewish demography: Facts, outlook, challenges, Alert paper, 2. Jerusalem: Jewish People Policy Planning Institute.Google Scholar
  55. DellaPergola, S. 2003b. Demographic trends in Israel and Palestine: Prospects and policy implications. American Jewish Year Book 103, 3–68. New York: American Jewish Committee.Google Scholar
  56. DellaPergola, S. 2005. Was it the demography? A reassessment of U.S. Jewish population estimates, 1945–2001. Contemporary Jewry 25: 85–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. DellaPergola, S. 2007a. Population trends and scenarios in Israel and Palestine. In Population resettlement in international conflicts: A comparative study, ed. A.M. Kacowicz and P. Lutomski, 183–207. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  58. DellaPergola, S. 2007b. Correspondence. Azure 27: 3–33.Google Scholar
  59. DellaPergola, S. 2008a. Autonomy and dependency: Latin American Jewry in global perspective. In Identities in an era of globalization and multiculturalism: Latin America in the Jewish world, ed. J. Bokser Liwerant, E. Ben-Rafael, Y. Gorni, and R. Rein, 47–80. Leiden/Boston: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. DellaPergola, S. 2008b. Demography, planning and policy, 2000–2020. In 40 years in Jerusalem, ed. O. Achimeir and Y. BarSimantov, 39–59. Jerusalem: Jerusalem Institute of Israel Studies (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  61. DellaPergola, S. 2009a. Fertility prospects in Israel: Ever below replacement level? In United Nations expert group meeting on Recent and future trends in fertility. New York: United Nations Secretariat, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.Google Scholar
  62. DellaPergola, S. 2009b. International migration of Jews. In Transnationalism: Diasporas and the advent of a new (dis)order, ed. E. Ben-Rafael and Y. Sternberg, 213–236. Leiden/Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
  63. DellaPergola, S. 2009c. Jewish out-marriage: A global perspective. In Jewish intermarriage around the world, ed. S. Reinharz and S. DellaPergola, 13–39. London/New Brunswick: Transaction.Google Scholar
  64. DellaPergola, S. 2009d. Actual, intended, and appropriate family size among Jews in Israel. Contemporary Jewry 29(2): 127–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. DellaPergola, S. 2010a. World Jewish population, 2010, Current Jewish population reports, Report 2010–2012. Storrs: The North American Jewish Data Bank, the Association for the Social Scientific Study of Jewry, and the Jewish Federations of North America.Google Scholar
  66. DellaPergola, S. 2010b. Jews in Europe: Demographic trends, contexts, outlooks. In A road to nowhere? Jewish experiences in unifying Europe? ed. J. Schoeps and E. Ben-Rafael, 3–34. Leiden/Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
  67. DellaPergola, S. 2011a. Cuántos somos hoy? Investigacón y narrativa sobre población judía en América Latina. In Pertenencia y Alteridad – Judios en/de America Latina: cuarenta años de cambios, ed. H. Avni, J. Bokser-Liwerant, S. DellaPergola, M. Bejarano, and L. Senkman, 305–340. Madrid/Frankfurt am Main: Iberoamericana – Vervuert.Google Scholar
  68. DellaPergola, S. 2011b. Jewish demographic policies: Population trends and options in Israel and in the diaspora. Jerusalem: Jewish People Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  69. DellaPergola, S. 2011c. When scholarship disturbs narrative: Ian Lustick on Israel’s migration balance. Israel Studies Review – An Interdisciplinary Journal 26(2): 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. DellaPergola, S. 2012. World Jewish population, 2012. In American Jewish year book 2012, ed. A. Dashefsky and I. Sheskin, 213–283. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  71. DellaPergola, S. 2013a. How many Jews in the US? The demographic perspective. Contemporary Jewry 33(1–2): 15–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. DellaPergola, S. 2013b. World Jewish population, 2013. In American Jewish year book 2013, ed. A. Dashefsky and I. Sheskin, 279–358. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  73. DellaPergola, S. 2013c. Italy. In Perceptions and experiences of antisemitism among Jews in selected EU member states, ed. L. Staetsky, J. Boyd, E. Ben-Rafael, E. Cohen, S. DellaPergola, L. Dencik, O. Glöckner, and A. Kovács, 103–106. London: JPR/Institute for Jewish Policy Research; Ipsos MORI.Google Scholar
  74. DellaPergola, S. 2014a. World Jewish population, 2014. In American Jewish year book 2014, ed. A. Dashefsky and I. Sheskin, 301–393. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  75. DellaPergola, S. 2014b. Jewish peoplehood: Hard, soft and interactive markers. In Reconsidering Israel-diaspora relations, ed. E. Ben-Rafael, Y. Gorni, and J. Liwerant, 25–59. Leiden/Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
  76. DellaPergola, S. 2014c. Reflections on the multinational geography of Jews after world war II. In Displacement, migration and integration: A comparative approach to Jewish migrants and refugees in the post-war period, ed. F. Ouzan and M. Garstenfeld, 13–33. Leiden/Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
  77. DellaPergola, S. 2014d. Jewish demography: Fundamentals of the research field. In Studies in contemporary Jewry, vol. 27, ed. U. Rebhun, 3–36. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  78. DellaPergola, S. 2014e. Measuring Jewish populations. In Yearbook of international religious demography 2014, ed. B.J. Grim, T.M. Johnson, V. Skirbekk, and G.A. Zurlo, 97–110. Leiden/Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
  79. DellaPergola, S. 2014f. End of Jewish/Non-Jewish Dichotomy? Evidence from the 2013 Pew Survey. In American Jewish year book 114, ed. A. Dashefsky and I. Sheskin, 33–39. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  80. DellaPergola, S. 2015a. World Jewish population 2015. In American Jewish year book 2015, ed. A. Dashefsky and I. Sheskin, 273–364. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  81. DellaPergola, S. 2015b. View from a different planet: Fertility attitudes, performances and policies among Jewish Israelis. In Love, marriage and Jewish families today: Paradoxes of a social revolution, ed. S. Fishman, 123–150. Waltham: Brandeis University Press.Google Scholar
  82. DellaPergola, S. 2015c. On behalf of the epistemic community: Contexts and standards of American Jewishness. Contemporary Jewry 35(2): 129–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. DellaPergola, S., and L. Cohen (eds.). 1992. World Jewish population: Trends and policies. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University, and Prime Minister Office, The Demographic Center.Google Scholar
  84. DellaPergola, S., and A.A. Dubb. 1988. South African Jewry: A sociodemographic profile. American Jewish Year Book 88, 59–140. Philadelphia/New York: Jewish Publication Society and American Jewish Committee.Google Scholar
  85. DellaPergola, S., and S. Lerner. 1995. La población judía de México: Perfil demográfico, social y cultura. México: Asociación de Amigos de la Universidad Hebrea de Jerusalén, and Colegio de Mexico; Jerusalén: Universidad Hebrea de Jerusalén.Google Scholar
  86. DellaPergola, S., and U.O. Schmelz. 1978. The Jews of greater Mexico city according to the 1970 population census: First data and critical evaluation. Jerusalem: Universidad Hebrea, Instituto de Judaísmo Contemporáneo, mimeo.Google Scholar
  87. DellaPergola, S., and U.O. Schmelz. 1989. Demography and Jewish education in the diaspora: Trends in Jewish school-age population and school enrollment. In Jewish education worldwide: Cross-cultural perspectives, ed. H.S. Himmelfarb and S. DellaPergola, 43–68. Lanham: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  88. DellaPergola, S., and I.M. Sheskin. 2015. Global dispersion of Jews: Determinants and consequences. In The changing world religion map: Sacred places, identities, practices and politics, ed. S.B. Brunn, Chap. 70, 1311–1343. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  89. DellaPergola, S., U. Rebhun, and M. Tolts. 1999. American Jewry: A population projection, 1990–2020. In Jews in America: A contemporary reader, ed. R. Rosenberg Farber and C.I. Waxman, 33–50. Hanover/London: Brandeis University Press/University Press of New England.Google Scholar
  90. DellaPergola, S., S. Benzaquen, and T. Beker de Weinraub. 2000a. Perfil sociodemográfico y cultural de la comunidad judía de Caracas. Caracas/Jerusalem: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  91. DellaPergola, S., U. Rebhun, and M. Tolts. 2000b. Prospecting the Jewish future: Population projections 2000–2080. American Jewish Year Book 100, 103–146. New York: American Jewish Committee.Google Scholar
  92. DellaPergola, S., U. Rebhun, and M. Tolts. 2005. Contemporary Jewish diaspora in global context: Human development correlates of population trends. Israel Studies 11(1): 61–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Dencik, L. 2003. ‘Jewishness’ in postmodernity: The case of Sweden, Paideia report. Stockholm: The European Institute for Jewish Studies.Google Scholar
  94. Dencik, L. 2013. Sweden. In Perceptions and experiences of antisemitism among Jews in selected EU member states, ed. L. Staetsky, J. Boyd, E. Ben-Rafael, E. Cohen, S. DellaPergola, L. Dencik, O. Glöckner, and A. Kovács, 112–120. London: JPR/Institute for Jewish Policy Research; Ipsos MORI.Google Scholar
  95. Dietz, B., U. Lebok, and P. Polian. 2002. The Jewish emigration from the former Soviet Union to Germany. International Migration 40(2): 29–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Dubb, A.A. 1994. The Jewish population of South Africa: The 1991 sociodemographic survey. Cape Town: University of Cape Town, Kaplan Centre.Google Scholar
  97. Dvorin, N. 2006. Marriages of Israelis abroad and the role of former Soviet Union immigrants. Megamot 44(3): 477–506.Google Scholar
  98. Eckstein, G. 2003. Demography of the Sydney Jewish community 2001. Sydney: Unpublished Paper.Google Scholar
  99. Eckstein, G. 2009. Intermarriage among Jewish Australians. In Jewish intermarriage around the world, ed. S. Reinharz and S. DellaPergola, 139–152. New Brunswick/London: Transaction.Google Scholar
  100. Erlanger, S. 2006. Jewish people policy planning institute annual assessment 2006, deltas creating opportunities and threats, executive report 3. Jerusalem: JPPPI.Google Scholar
  101. European Union Fundamental Rights Agency-FRA. 2013. Discrimination and hate crime against Jews in EU Member States: Experiences and perceptions of antisemitism. Vienna: European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights.Google Scholar
  102. Federação Israelita do Estado de São Paulo FISESP; 2002. Recadastramento comunitário 2000–01. São Paulo: FISESP.Google Scholar
  103. Feitelson, Y. 2013. The demographic processes in the Land of Israel (1800–2013). Jerusalem: The Institute for Zionist Strategies.Google Scholar
  104. Filiba, L. 2003. Turkish Jewish community demographic survey 2002–3. Istanbul: Jewish Community of Turkey Council.Google Scholar
  105. Fisher, N. 2013. A Jewish state? Controversial conversions and the dispute over Israel’s Jewish character. Contemporary Jewry 33(3): 217–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Fisher, N. 2015. The challenge of conversion to Judaism in Israel: Policy analysis and recommendations. Jerusalem: The Israel Democracy Institute (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  107. Fishman, S. 2015. American Jewishness today: Identity and transmissibility in an open world. Marshall Sklare Award Lecture. Contemporary Jewry 35(2): 109–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Forrest, J., and I.M. Sheskin. 2014. Strands of diaspora: The resettlement experience of Jewish immigrants to Australia. Journal of International Migration and Integration 15(4): 1–17.Google Scholar
  109. Gavison, R. 2009. 60 years to the law of return: History, ideology, justification. Jerusalem: Metzilah Center for Zionist, Jewish, Liberal and Humanistic Thought.Google Scholar
  110. Gitelman, Z. 2003. Becoming Jewish in Russia and Ukraine. In New Jewish identities: Contemporary Europe and beyond, ed. Z. Gitelman, B. Kosmin, and A. Kovács, 105–137. Budapest/New York: Central European University.Google Scholar
  111. Glick, P.C. 1960. Intermarriage and fertility patterns among persons in major religious groups. Eugenics Quarterly 7: 31–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Glöckner, O. 2013. Germany. In Perceptions and experiences of antisemitism among Jews in selected EU member states, ed. L. Staetsky, J. Boyd, E. Ben-Rafael, E. Cohen, S. DellaPergola, L. Dencik, O. Glöckner, and A. Kovács, 98–100. London: JPR/Institute for Jewish Policy Research; Ipsos MORI.Google Scholar
  113. Goldman, G. 2009. Intermarriage among Jews in Canada: A demographic perspective. In Jewish intermarriage around the world, ed. S. Reinharz and S. DellaPergola, 105–114. New Brunswick/London: Transaction.Google Scholar
  114. Goldstein, S. 1969. Socioeconomic differentials among religious groups in the United States. The American Journal of Sociology 74(6): 612–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Goldstein, S. 1981. Jews in the United States: Perspectives from demography. American Jewish Year Book 81: 3–59.Google Scholar
  116. Goldstein, S. 1989. American Jewish demography: Inconsistencies that challenge. In Papers in Jewish demography 1985, ed. U.O. Schmelz and S. DellaPergola, 23–42. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University.Google Scholar
  117. Goldstein, S. 1992. Profile of American Jewry: Insights from the 1990 National Jewish population survey. American Jewish Year Book 92: 77–173.Google Scholar
  118. Goldstein, S., and A. Goldstein. 1997. Lithuanian Jewry 1993: A demographic and sociocultural profile. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University, The Institute of Contemporary Jewry.Google Scholar
  119. Goskomstat. 1994. Mikroperepisis’ naselenii Rossiiskoi Federatsii 1994. Moscow: Goskomstat (author’s own processing).Google Scholar
  120. Graham, D. 2004. European Jewish identity at the Dawn of the 21st century: A working paper. A report for the American Joint Distribution Committee and Hanadiv Charitable Foundation. Budapest: JPR-Institute for Jewish Policy Research.Google Scholar
  121. Graham, D.J. 2008. The socio-spatial boundaries of an ‘invisible’ minority: A quantitative reappraisal of Britain’s Jewish population. Oxford: University of Oxford, St Catherine’s College, Un published PhD thesis.Google Scholar
  122. Graham, D. 2012. Adjusting the Jewish population count in the 2011 Australian census; Methodological summary. London: JPR-Institute for Jewish Policy Research.Google Scholar
  123. Graham, D. 2013. 2011 census results thinning and thickening: Geographical change in the UK’s Jewish population, 2001–2011. London: Institute for Jewish Policy Research.Google Scholar
  124. Graham, D. 2014a. The Jewish population of Australia: Key findings from the 2011 census. Melbourne: JCA and Monash University, Australian Centre for Jewish Civilisation.Google Scholar
  125. Graham, D. 2014b. The Jewish population of New South Wales: Key findings from the 2011 Census. Melbourne: JCA and Monash University, Australian Centre for Jewish Civilisation.Google Scholar
  126. Graham, D. 2016. Jews in couples. Marriage, intermarriage, cohabitation and divorce in Britain. London: JPR/Institute for Jewish Policy Research.Google Scholar
  127. Graham, D., and M.L. Caputo. 2015. Jewish families and Jewish households: Census insights about how we live. London: Institute for Jewish Policy Research.Google Scholar
  128. Graham, D., and D. Vulkan. 2007. Britain’s Jewish community statistics. London: Board of Deputies of British Jews.Google Scholar
  129. Graham, D., and D. Vulkan. 2008. Britain’s Jewish community statistics. London: Board of Deputies of British Jews.Google Scholar
  130. Graham, D., and D. Vulkan. 2010. Synagogue membership in the United Kingdom in 2010. London: JPR-Institute for Jewish Policy Research and The Board of Deputies of British Jews.Google Scholar
  131. Graham, D., and S. Waterman. 2005. Underenumeration of the Jewish Population in the UK 2001 Census. Population, Space and Place 11: 89–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Graham, D.J., and S. Waterman. 2007. Locating Jews by ethnicity: A reply to David Voas 2007. Population, Space and Place 13: 409–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Graham, D., M. Schmool, and S. Waterman. 2007. Jews in Britain: A snapshot from the 2001 census, JPR report, 1. London: Institute for Jewish Policy Research.Google Scholar
  134. Graham, D., J. Boyd, and D. Vulkan. 2012. 2011 census results England and Wales: Initial insights about the UK Jewish population. London: JPR.Google Scholar
  135. Grim, B.J., T.M. Johnson, V. Skirbekk, and G.A. Zurlo. 2014. Yearbook of international religious demography. Leiden/Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
  136. Groeneman, S., and T.W. Smith. 2009. Moving: The impact of geographical mobility on the Jewish community. New York: The Jewish Federations of North America.Google Scholar
  137. Hackett, C., B. Grim, M. Stonawski, V. Skirbekk, N. Kusiakose, and M. Potančoková. 2014. Methodology of the pew research global religions landscape study. In Yearbook of international religious demography 2014, ed. B.J. Grim, T.M. Johnson, V. Skirbekk, and G.A. Zurlo, 167–175. Leiden/Boston: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Hammer, M., A.J. Redd, E.T. Wood, M.R. Bonner, H. Jarjanazi, T. Karafet, S. Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. Oppenheim, M.A. Jobling, T. Jenkins, H. Ostrer, and B. Bonné-Tamir. 2000. Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97(12): 6769–6774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Harpaz, Y. 2013. Rooted cosmopolitans: Israelis with a European passport – History, property, identity. International Migration Review 47(1): 166–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Hart, R., and E. Kafka. 2006. Trends in British synagogue membership, 1990–2005/6. London: The Board of Deputies of British Jews.Google Scholar
  141. Hartman, H., and M. Hartman. 2009. Gender and American Jews: Patterns in work, education & family in contemporary life. Waltham: Brandeis University Press.Google Scholar
  142. Hartman, H., and I.M. Sheskin. 2012. The relationship of Jewish community contexts and Jewish identity: A 22-community study. Contemporary Jewry 32(3): 237–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Heilman, S. (ed.). 2005. Contemporary Jewry 25.Google Scholar
  144. Heilman, S. (ed.). 2013. Contemporary Jewry 33(1–2).Google Scholar
  145. HIAS. 2013. Annual. Statistical report. New York: The Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society: IBGE. Instituto Brasilero de Geografia e Estatistica IBGE. 1980. Population census. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE.Google Scholar
  146. Ifop pour la Fondation Jean Jaurès. 2015. Enquête auprès des Juifs de France. Paris: IFOP.Google Scholar
  147. Instituto Brasilero de Geografia e Estatistica IBGE. 1991. Population census. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE.Google Scholar
  148. Instituto Brasilero de Geografia e Estatistica IBGE. 2000. Population census. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE.Google Scholar
  149. Instituto Brasilero de Geografia e Estatistica IBGE. 2010. Population census. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE.Google Scholar
  150. Instituto Nacional de Estadistica. 2003. Censo 2002: Sintesis de Resultados. Santiago de Chile: Instituto Nacional de Estadistica.Google Scholar
  151. Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografia e Informatica. 2002. XII Censo General de Población y Vivienda 2000. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informatica.Google Scholar
  152. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. 2012. La población con religion Judía en México. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía.Google Scholar
  153. Ireland Census Statistical Office. 2011. 2011 census. Dublin: Ireland Census Statistical Office.Google Scholar
  154. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Annual. Statistical abstract of Israel. Jerusalem: Central Bureau of Statistics. Accessed at http://www.cbs.gov.il.
  155. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2016. Monthly. Israel statistical monthly. Jerusalem: Central Bureau of Statistics. Accessed at http://www.cbs.gov.il.
  156. Israel IDF Civilian Administration in Judea and Samaria. 2016. Demography in Judea and Samaria. Jerusalem: Israel Defense Forces.Google Scholar
  157. Israel Population and Migration Authority. 2016. Data on foreigners in Israel. Jerusalem: Israel Population and Migration Authority, Division of Policy Planning (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  158. Jerusalem Institute of Israel Studies. 2015. Statistical yearbook of Jerusalem 2015. Jerusalem: Jerusalem Municipality and the Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies.Google Scholar
  159. Jmelnizky, A., and E. Erdei. 2005. Estudio de Población Judía en Ciudad de Buenos Aires y Gran Buenos Aires AMBA. Buenos Aires: Media, Centro de Estudios para las Comunidades Judías de Latinoamérica, American Joint Distribution Committee.Google Scholar
  160. Johnson, T.M., and G.A. Zurlo. 2014. The world by religion. In Yearbook of international religious demography 2014, ed. B.J. Grim, T.M. Johnson, V. Skirbekk, and G.A. Zurlo, 3–82. Leiden/Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
  161. Josefson, D. 2016. In remote Madagascar, a new community chooses to be Jewish. JTA, located June 6, 2016.Google Scholar
  162. Josselson, R., and M. Harway. 2012. Navigating multiple identities: Race, gender, culture, nationality, and roles. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Kadushin, C., B. Phillips, and L. Saxe. 2005. National Jewish population survey 2000–01: A guide for the perplexed. Contemporary Jewry 25: 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Kaufman, D.R. (ed.) 2014. Demographic Storytelling: The Importance of Being Narrative, Contemporary Jewry 34(2).Google Scholar
  165. Kimmerling, B. 1999. Conceptual problems. In One land, two peoples, ed. D. Jacoby, 11–22. Jerusalem: The Magnes Press.Google Scholar
  166. Konstantinov, V. 2007. Jewish population in the former Soviet Union in the 20th century. Jerusalem: Lira (in Russian).Google Scholar
  167. Kooyman, C., and J. Almagor. 1996. Israelis in Holland: A sociodemographic study of Israelis and former Israelis in Holland. Amsterdam: Stichting Joods Maatschappelijk Werk.Google Scholar
  168. Korazim, M., and E. Katz. 2003. Patterns of Jewish identity in Moldova: The behavioral dimension. In New Jewish identities: Contemporary Europe and beyond, ed. Z. Gitelman, B. Kosmin, and A. Kovács, 159–170. Budapest/New York: Central European University.Google Scholar
  169. Kosmin, B.A., and A. Keysar. 2009. American religious identification survey ARIS 2008. Summary report. Hartford: Trinity College.Google Scholar
  170. Kosmin, B.A., and S.P. Lachman. 1993. One nation under God: Religion in contemporary American society. New York: Harmony Books.Google Scholar
  171. Kosmin, B., and S. Waterman. 2002. Commentary on census religion question. London: JPR-Institute for Jewish Policy Research.Google Scholar
  172. Kosmin, B.A., S. Goldstein, J. Waksberg, N. Lerer, A. Keysar, and J. Scheckner. 1991. Highlights of the CJF 1990 national Jewish population survey. New York: Council of Jewish Federations.Google Scholar
  173. Kosmin, B.A., J. Goldberg, M. Shain, and S. Bruk. 1999. Jews of the New South Africa: Highlights of the 1998 national survey of South African Jews. London: JPR.Google Scholar
  174. Kosmin, B.A., E. Mayer, and A. Keysar. 2001. American religious identification survey 2001. New York: Graduate Center of the City University of New York.Google Scholar
  175. Kotler-Berkowitz, L., S.M. Cohen, J. Ament, V. Klaff, F. Mott, D. Peckerman-Neuman, L. Blass, D. Bursztyn, and D. Marker. 2003. The National Jewish population survey 2000–01: Strength, challenge, and diversity in the American Jewish population. New York: United Jewish Communities.Google Scholar
  176. Kovács, A. (ed.). 2004. Jews and Jewry in contemporary Hungary: Results of a sociological survey, JPR report no. 1. London: JPR.Google Scholar
  177. Kovács, A. 2013a. Hungary. In Perceptions and experiences of antisemitism among Jews in selected EU member states, ed. L. Staetsky, J. Boyd, E. Ben-Rafael, E. Cohen, S. DellaPergola, L. Dencik, O. Glöckner, and A. Kovács, 101–102. London: JPR/Institute for Jewish Policy Research; Ipsos MORI.Google Scholar
  178. Kovács, A. 2013b. Latvia. In Perceptions and experiences of antisemitism among Jews in selected EU member states, ed. L. Staetsky, J. Boyd, E. Ben-Rafael, E. Cohen, S. DellaPergola, L. Dencik, O. Glöckner, and A. Kovács, 109–110. London: JPR/Institute for Jewish Policy Research; Ipsos MORI.Google Scholar
  179. Kovács, A. 2013c. Romania. In Perceptions and experiences of antisemitism among Jews in selected EU member states, ed. L. Staetsky, J. Boyd, E. Ben-Rafael, E. Cohen, S. DellaPergola, L. Dencik, O. Glöckner, and A. Kovács, 111. London: JPR/Institute for Jewish Policy Research; Ipsos MORI.Google Scholar
  180. Kovács, A., and I. Barna. 2010. Identity à la carte: Research on Jewish identities, participation and affiliation in five European countries. Analysis of survey data. Budapest: The American Joint Distribution Committee.Google Scholar
  181. Kubovich, Y. 2016. Turkish Jews Say Raising Anti-Semitism Will Drive Next Generation Away. Haaretz, July 3, 2016.Google Scholar
  182. Lagnado, L. 2014. Displacement of Jews from Arab Countries 1948–2012. New York: Unpublished Manuscript.Google Scholar
  183. Lattes, Y.A. 2005. Sull’assimilazione in Italia e i metodi per affrontarla. Ramat Gan: Bar Ilan University.Google Scholar
  184. Lazerwitz, B. 1978. An estimate of a rare population group—The U.S. Jewish population. Demography 15(3): 389–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Lieberson, S., and M.C. Waters. 1988. From many strands: Ethnic and racial groups in contemporary America, The population of the United States in the 1980s, a census monograph series. New York: Russell-Sage.Google Scholar
  186. Lustick, I.S. 2011. Israel’s migration balance: Demography, politics, and ideology. Israel Studies Review – An Interdisciplinary Journal 26(1): 33–65.Google Scholar
  187. Markus, A., N. Jacobs, and T. Aronov. 2009. Preliminary findings: Melbourne & Sydney, Report series of the Gen08 survey, Report 1. Melbourne: Monash University, Australian Center for Jewish Civilization.Google Scholar
  188. Markus, A., J. Goldlust, N. Jacobs, T. Baker, T. Munz, A. Goodman, and D. Graham. 2011. Jewish continuity: Melbourne & Sydney, Report series of the Gen08 survey, Report 2. Melbourne: Monash University, Australian Center for Jewish Civilization.Google Scholar
  189. Massarik, F. 1974. National Jewish population study: A new United States estimate. American Jewish Year Book 75: 296–304. New York/Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society and American Jewish Committee.Google Scholar
  190. Mayer, E., B. Kosmin, and A. Keysar. 2001. American Jewish identity survey 2001. New York: The Graduate Center of the City University of New York.Google Scholar
  191. Milkewitz, A., G. Milevski, and E. Erdei. 2014. Survey São Paulo Jewish Community March 2014. São Paulo: Federaçao Israelita doEstdo de São Paulo FISESP, American Joint Distribution Committee Escritório Brasil, Knack Investigaçao e Consultoria.Google Scholar
  192. Miller, E. 2015. Right-wing annexation drive fueled by false demographics, experts say. Times of Israel, Jan 5. http://www.timesofisrael.com/right-wing-annexation-drive-fueled-by-false-demographics-experts-say/.
  193. Miller, S., M. Schmool, and A. Lerman. 1996. Social and political attitudes of British Jews: Some key findings of the JPR survey. London: JPR.Google Scholar
  194. Moles, A. 1965. Sur l’aspect théorique du decompte de populations mal definies. In La vie juive dans l’Europe contemporaine, 81–87. Brussels: Centre national des hautes études juives and Institute of Contemporary Jewry of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  195. Morris, P. 2011. Changing Jewry: A survey of the New Zealand Jewish community. Auckland: B’nai B’rith.Google Scholar
  196. Parfitt, T. 2002. The lost tribes of Israel: The history of a myth. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson.Google Scholar
  197. PCBS Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. 1998. Population housing, and establishment census 1997, statistical brief (Summary of census results). Ramallah: PCBS.Google Scholar
  198. PCBS Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. 2008. Census semi final results in Gaza strip-summary (Population and housing). Ramallah: PCBS.Google Scholar
  199. PCBS Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. 2009a. Census final results – Population report-west bank. Ramallah: PCBS.Google Scholar
  200. PCBS Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. 2009b. Census final results – Population report-Jerusalem governorate. Ramallah: PCBS.Google Scholar
  201. PCBS Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. 2016. Estimated population in the Palestinian Territory mid-year by Governorate,1997–2016. http://www.pcbs.gov.ps/Portals/_Rainbow/Documents/gover_e.htm.
  202. Perlmann, J. 2007. Two national surveys of American Jews, 2000–01: A comparison of the NJPS and AJIS, Working paper no. 501. Annandale-on-Hudson: The Levy Economics Institute of Bard College.Google Scholar
  203. Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. 2008. U.S. religious landscape survey: Religious affiliation: Diverse and dynamic. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  204. Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. 2012. The global religious landscape: A report on the size and distribution of the world’s major religious groups as of 2010. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  205. Pew Research Center. 2015. The future of world religions: Population growth projections, 2010–2050. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  206. Pew Research Center. 2013. A portrait of Jewish Americans: Findings from a Pew research center survey of U.S. Jews. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  207. Pew Research Center. 2016. Israel’s religiously divided society. Deep gulfs among Jews, as well as between Jews and Arabs, over political values and religion’s role in public life. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  208. Phillips, B.A. 1997. Re-examining intermarriage: Trends, textures, strategies. New York: The Susan and David Wilstein Institute of Jewish Policy Studies, and the American Jewish Committee, The William Petschek National Family Center.Google Scholar
  209. Phillips, B.A. 2005. 2004 Jewish community study. San Francisco: Jewish Community Federation of San Francisco, The Peninsula, Marin and Sonoma Counties.Google Scholar
  210. Phillips, B.A. 2013. New demographic perspectives on studying intermarriage in the United States. Contemporary Jewry 33(1–2): 103–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Population Reference Bureau. 2015. 2015 world population data sheet. Washington, DC: PRB.Google Scholar
  212. Porzecanski, R. 2006. El uruguayo judío. Montevideo: Trilce.Google Scholar
  213. Pupko, I. 2013. Here and there: Transnational immigrants in Israel. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, unpublished PhD dissertation (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  214. Rebhun, U. 2013. Jewish identification in intermarriage: Does a spouse’s religion (Catholic vs. Protestant) matter? Sociology of Religion: A Quarterly Review 60(1): 71–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Rebhun, U., and S. Goldstein. 2006. Changes in the geographical dispersion and mobility of American Jews, 1990–2001. The Jewish Journal of Sociology 48(1): 5–33.Google Scholar
  216. Rebhun, U., and L. Lev Ari. 2010. American Israelis: Migration, transnationalism, and diasporic identity. Leiden/Boston: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Rebhun, U., H. Sünker, D. Kranz, N. Beider, K. Harbi, and M. Shorer-Kaplan. 2016. Israelis in contemporary Germany: Social integration and the construction of group identity. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University, Wuppertal, Bergische Universität, SWP-German Institute for International and Security Affairs.Google Scholar
  218. Reinharz, S., and S. DellaPergola (eds.). 2009. Jewish intermarriage around the world. New Brunswick/London: Transaction.Google Scholar
  219. Ritterband, P., B.A. Kosmin, and J. Scheckner. 1988. Counting Jewish populations: Methods and problems. American Jewish Year Book 88, 204–221. New York: American Jewish Committee.Google Scholar
  220. Robison, S. 1943. Jewish population studies. New York: Conference on Jewish Relations, Jewish Social Studies, 3.Google Scholar
  221. Rosenwaike, I. 1980. A synthetic estimate of American Jewish population movement over the last three decades. In Papers in Jewish demography 1977, ed. U.O. Schmelz and S. DellaPergola, 83–102. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University.Google Scholar
  222. Rosstat. 2014. Special population census of Crimea 2014. Moscow: Rosstat.Google Scholar
  223. Rubel, Y. 2005. La Población Judía de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Perfil Socio-Demográfico. Buenos Aires: Agencia Judía para Israel, Iniciativa de Demografía Judía.Google Scholar
  224. Saks, D. 2003. Community stable, ageing – Census, South African Jewish report. Johannesburg: South African Jewish Board of Deputies.Google Scholar
  225. Saxe, L., and E. Tighe. 2013. Estimating and understanding the Jewish population in the United States: A program of research. Contemporary Jewry 33(1–2): 43–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Saxe, L., B. Phillips, C. Kadushin, G. Wright, and D. Parmer. 2006a. The 2005 Boston community study: Preliminary findings. A report by the Steinhardt Social Research Institute. Waltham: Brandeis University for Combined Jewish Philanthropies of Boston.Google Scholar
  227. Saxe, L., E. Tighe, B. Phillips, A. Libhaber, D. Parmer, J. Simon, and G. Wright. 2006b. Understanding contemporary American Jewry. Waltham: Brandeis University, Steinhardt Social Research Institute.Google Scholar
  228. Saxe, L., E. Tighe, B. Phillips, C. Kadushin, M. Barnett, D. Grant, D. Livert, A. Libhaber, M. Sud Lokshin, D. Parmer, D. Rindskopf, S. Simon, and G. Wright. 2007. Reconsidering the size and characteristics of the American Jewish population: New estimates of a larger and more diverse community. Waltham: Brandeis University, Steinhardt Social Research Institute.Google Scholar
  229. Schick, Marvin. 2005. A census of Jewish day schools in the United States 2003–2004. Jerusalem: Avi Chai.Google Scholar
  230. Schmelz, U.O. 1981. Jewish survival: The demographic factors. American Jewish Year Book 81, 61–117. New York: American Jewish Committee.Google Scholar
  231. Schmelz, U.O. 1984. Aging of world Jewry Jerusalem. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University/Brookdale Institute.Google Scholar
  232. Schmelz, U.O., and S. DellaPergola. 1983. The demographic consequences of U.S. Jewish population trends. American Jewish Year Book 83, 141–187. New York: American Jewish Committee.Google Scholar
  233. Schmelz, U.O., and S. DellaPergola. 1985. The demography of Latin American Jewry. American Jewish Year Book 85, 51–102. New York/Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society and American Jewish Committee.Google Scholar
  234. Schmelz, U.O., and S. DellaPergola. 1988. Basic trends in American Jewish demography. New York: American Jewish Committee.Google Scholar
  235. Schnapper, D. 1994. Israélites and Juifs: New Jewish Identities in France. In Jewish Identities in the New Europe, ed. J. Webber, 171–178. London: Littman Library of Jewish Civilization.Google Scholar
  236. Schoeps, J.H., W. Jasper, and B. Vogt (eds.). 1999. Ein neues Judentum in Deutschland? Fremd und Eigenbilder der russisch-jüdischen Einwanderer. Potsdam: Verlag für Berlin-Brandenburg.Google Scholar
  237. Schulman, M. 2003. National Jewish population survey 2000–01: Study review Memo, prepared for United Jewish Communities. New York.Google Scholar
  238. Schwartz, J., J. Scheckner, and L. Kotler-Berkowitz. 2002. Census of U.S. synagogues, 2001. American Jewish Year Book 102: 112–150.Google Scholar
  239. Schweiz, Statistik. 2005. Wohnbevölkerung nach Religion 2000. Neuchatel: Bundesamt für Statistik.Google Scholar
  240. Schweiz, Statistik. 2012. Ständige Wohnbevölkerung ab 15 Jahren nach Religionszugehörigkeit, 2012. Neuchatel: Bundesamt für Statistik.Google Scholar
  241. Shahar, C. 2004. The Jewish community of Canada. Toronto: Jewish Federations of Canada-UIA.Google Scholar
  242. Shahar, C. 2014. 2011 National household survey analysis, the Jewish population of Canada. Part 1, basic demographics; Part 2, Jewish populations in geographic areas. Toronto: Jewish Federations of Canada-UIA.Google Scholar
  243. Shahar, C. 2015. Jewish population of Canada, 2015. In American Jewish year book 2015, ed. A. Dashefsky and I. Sheskin, 261–271. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  244. Sheskin, I.M. 2008. Four questions about American Jewish demography. Jewish Political Studies Review 20(1–2): 23–42.Google Scholar
  245. Sheskin, I.M. 2009. The 2008 Jewish community study of greater Middlesex county, main report. South River, NJ: Jewish Federation of Greater Middlesex County.Google Scholar
  246. Sheskin, I.M. 2015a. Comparisons of Jewish communities: A compendium of tables and bar charts. Storrs: Mandell Berman Institute, North American Jewish Data Bank and the Jewish Federations of North America.Google Scholar
  247. Sheskin, I.M. 2015b. 2014 Greater Miami Jewish federation population study: A portrait of Jewish Miami. Miami: The Greater Miami Jewish Federation.Google Scholar
  248. Sheskin, I.M., and A. Dashefsky. 2007. Jewish population of the United States, 2007, American Jewish Year Book, 107. New York: The American Jewish Committee, 136–138 and 198–199.Google Scholar
  249. Sheskin, I.M., and A. Dashefsky. 2010. Jewish population in the United States, 2010, Current Jewish Population Reports, Report 2010–1. Storrs: The North American Jewish Data Bank, the Association for the Social Scientific Study of Jewry, and the Jewish Federations of North America.Google Scholar
  250. Sheskin, I.M., and A. Dashefsky. 2015. Jewish population in the United States 2015. In American Jewish year book 2015, ed. A. Dashefsky and I. Sheskin, 163–260. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  251. Shorer Kaplan, M. 2016. Ethnic migration in comparative perspective: A case study of migration of Jews from Uruguay to Israel and other countries. Hagira, 6 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  252. Smith, T.W. 2009. Religious switching among American Jews. New York: The American Jewish Committee.Google Scholar
  253. Soffer, A. 2015. If I were running to lead Israel in 2015. Haifa: University of Haifa, Chaikin Chair in Geostrategic Studies (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  254. Soffer, A., and Y. Bistrow. 2004. Israel demography 2004–2020 in the light of disengagement. Haifa: University of Haifa (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  255. SSRI. 2015. Jewish population estimates 2014. Preliminary Release 6/29/2015. Waltham: Brandeis University, SSRI Steinhardt Social Research Institute.Google Scholar
  256. Staetsky, L., J. Boyd, E. Ben-Rafael, E. Cohen, S. DellaPergola, L. Dencik, O. Glöckner, and A. Kovács. 2013. Perceptions and experiences of antisemitism among Jews in selected EU member states. London: JPR/Institute for Jewish Policy Research; Ipsos MORI.Google Scholar
  257. Stark, T. 1995. A magyar zsidóság statisztikája: Kutatási jelentés. Budapest: MTA Történettudományi Intézete.Google Scholar
  258. Statistics Canada. 2003a. Selected religions for Canada provinces and territories – 20 % sample data. http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census01/products/highlight/Religion/Page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo=PR&View=1a&Code=01&Table=1&StartRec=1&Sort=2&B1=Canada&B2=1. Ottawa.
  259. Statistics Canada. 2003b. Profile of citizenship, immigration, birthplace, generation status, ethnic origin, visible minorities and aboriginal peoples, for Canada, provinces, territories, census divisions and census subdivisions, 2001 census. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/english/census01/products/standard/profiles/Rp-eng.cfm?LANG. Ottawa.
  260. Statistics Canada. 2008. Ethnic origins 2006 counts for Canada provinces and territories – 20 % sample data. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/hlt/97-562/pages/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo=PR&Code=01&Data=Count&Table=2&StartRec=1&Sort=3&Display=All&CSDFilter=5000. Ottawa.
  261. Statistics Canada. 2013a. 2011 National household survey, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 99-010-X2011032. Ottawa.Google Scholar
  262. Statistics Canada. 2013b. 2011 National household survey, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 99-010-X2011028. Ottawa.Google Scholar
  263. Statistics New Zealand. 2007. 2006 census of population and dwelling. Auckland: Statistics New Zealand.Google Scholar
  264. Stonawski, M., V. Skirbekk, C. Hackett, M. Potančoková, and B. Grim. 2014. The size and demographic structure of religions in Europe. In Yearbook of international religious demography 2014, ed. B.J. Grim, T.M. Johnson, V. Skirbekk, and G.A. Zurlo, 131–142. Leiden/Boston: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Swiss Fund for Needy Victims of the Holocaust/Shoa. 2002. Final report. Bern: Swiss Fund for Needy Victims of the Holocaust/Shoa.Google Scholar
  266. Tanenbaum, B., and R. Kooyman. 2014. Jewish feelings, Jewish practice? Children of Jewish intermarriage in the Netherlands. Paris/Oxford: JDC International Centre for Community Development.Google Scholar
  267. The Board of Deputies of British Jews, Community Research Unit. 2005. Report on community vital statistics 2004. London: The Board of Deputies of British Jews, Community Research Unit.Google Scholar
  268. The Jewish Daily Forward. 2014. Who are we now? Interpreting the Pew study on Jewish identity in America today. http://www.amazon.com/Interpreting-Study-Jewish-Identity-America-ebook/dp/B00FWVFD2C.
  269. The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute. 2005. Annual assessment 2004–2005, between thriving and decline. Jerusalem: The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute.Google Scholar
  270. The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute. 2007. The conference on the future of the Jewish people 2007, background policy documents. Jerusalem: The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute.Google Scholar
  271. The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute. 2008. Tomorrow. Jerusalem: The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute.Google Scholar
  272. Tian, J.Y., H.W. Wang, Y.C. Li, W. Zhang, Y.G. Yao, J. Van Straten, M.B. Richards, and Q.P. Kong. 2015. A genetic contribution from the Far East into Ashkenazi Jews via the ancient Silk Road. Scientific Reports 5(8377): 1–35.Google Scholar
  273. Tighe, E., L. Saxe, D. Brown, J. Dillinger, A. Klein, and A. Hill. 2005. Research synthesis of national survey estimates of the U.S. Jewish population; project summary, method and analysis plan. Waltham: Brandeis University, Steinhardt Social Research Institute.Google Scholar
  274. Tighe, E., C. Kadushin, and L. Saxe. 2009a. Jewish population in the US: 1990 vs. 2000, Working paper. Waltham: Brandeis University, Steinhardt Social Research Institute.Google Scholar
  275. Tighe, E., D. Livert, M. Barnett, and L. Saxe. 2009b. Cross-survey analysis to estimate low incidence religious groups. Waltham: Brandeis University, Steinhardt Social Research Institute.Google Scholar
  276. Tighe, E., L. Saxe, C. Kadushin, R. Magidin De Kramer, B. Nurshadenov, J. Aronson, and L. Cherny. 2011. Estimating the Jewish population of the United States: 2000–2010. Waltham: Brandeis University, Steinhardt Social Research Institute.Google Scholar
  277. Tobin, G., and S. Groeneman. 2003. Surveying the Jewish population in the United States. Part 1: Population estimate. Part 2: Methodological issues and challenges. San Francisco: Institute for Jewish & Community Research.Google Scholar
  278. Tolts, M. 2002. Main demographic trends of the Jews in Russia and the FSU. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University, The Institute of Contemporary Jewry.Google Scholar
  279. Tolts, M. 2003. Mass Aliyah and Jewish emigration from Russia: Dynamics and factors. Eastern European Jewish Affairs 33: 71–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Tolts, M. 2004. The Post-Soviet Jewish population in Russia and the world. Jews in Russia and Eastern Europe 52: 37–63.Google Scholar
  281. Tolts, M. 2005. Demographic trends of the Jews in the Former Soviet Union (Final report – Sixth year of study). Jerusalem: The Hebrew University, The A. Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics.Google Scholar
  282. Tolts, M. 2006. Contemporary trends in family formation among the Jews in Russia. Jews in Russia and Eastern Europe 57: 5–23.Google Scholar
  283. Tolts, M. 2007. Post-Soviet Jewish demography, 1989–2004. In Revolution, repression, and revival: The Soviet Jewish experience, ed. Z. Gitelman and Y. Ro’i, 283–311. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  284. Tolts, M. 2008. Population since world war I; Migration since world war I. In The YIVO encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe, ed. G. Hundert, 1429–1440. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  285. Tolts, M. 2009. Some demographic and socio-economic trends of the Jews in Russia and the FSU. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University, The A. Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics.Google Scholar
  286. Tolts, M. 2011. Demography of the contemporary Russian-Speaking Jewish diaspora. Paper presented at the conference on the contemporary Russian-speaking Jewish Diaspora. Cambridge: Harvard University, November 13–15.Google Scholar
  287. Tolts, M. 2013. The Jews in Georgia in the Late Soviet Period: A demographic profile. In Studies in Caucasian, Georgian, and Bukharan Jewry: Historical, sociological, and cultural aspects, ed. G. Akhiezer, R. Enoch, and S. Weinstein, 102–116. Ariel: Ariel University, Institute for Research of Jewish Communities of the Caucasus and Central Asia.Google Scholar
  288. Tolts, M. 2014. Sources for the demographic study of the Jews in the former Soviet Union. Studies in Contemporary Jewry 27: 160–177.Google Scholar
  289. Tolts, M. 2015. Demographic transformations among Ex-Soviet migrants in Israel. In Research in Jewish demography and identity, ed. E. Lederhendler and U. Rebhun, 146–168. Boston: Academic Studies Press.Google Scholar
  290. Torczyner, J.L., S.L. Brotman, K. Viragh, and G.J. Goldmann. 1993. Demographic challenges facing Canadian Jewry; Initial findings from the 1991 census. Montreal: Federation CJA.Google Scholar
  291. Tuval, S. 2004. The Jewish community of Istanbul, 1948–1992. Jerusalem: Ben Zvi Institute (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  292. Ukrainian Ministry of Statistics. 2002. Population census 2001. Kiev: Ukrainian Ministry of Statistics.Google Scholar
  293. Unione delle Comunità Ebraiche Italiane. 2002. IV Congresso, Relazione del consiglio. Roma: Unione delle Comunità Ebraiche Italiane.Google Scholar
  294. Unione delle Comunità Ebraiche Italiane. 2010. Indagine demografica – Numero degli iscritti delle comunità. Roma: Unione delle Comunità Ebraiche Italiane.Google Scholar
  295. United Kingdom, National Records of Scotland (NRS). 2011. 2011 Scotland’s Census. http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/.
  296. United Kingdom Office for National Statistics. 2002. National report for England and Wales 2001. London: United Kingdom Office for National Statistics.Google Scholar
  297. United Kingdom Office for National Statistics. 2012. 2011 Population Census. https://www.ons.gov.uk/census/2011census/2011ukcensuses/ukcensusesdata.
  298. United Kingdom, Scotland General Register Office. 2002. 2001 Census. Edinburgh: Scotland General Register Office.Google Scholar
  299. United Nations. 2006. Demographic yearbook. Special census topics. New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.Google Scholar
  300. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2015. World population prospects: The 2015 revision. New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.Google Scholar
  301. United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Human development report. New York: United Nations Development Programme.Google Scholar
  302. US Census Bureau. 1958. Religion reported by the civilian population in the United States, March 1957, Current population reports, population characteristics, series P-20, No. 79. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  303. US Census Bureau. 1968. Tabulations of data on the social and economic characteristics of major religious groups, March 1957. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  304. US Census Bureau. 2012. Statistical abstract of the United States. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  305. US Department of Homeland Security. 2013. Yearbook of immigration statistics: 2012. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics. Accessed at: http://www.dhs.gov/yearbook-immigration-statistics.
  306. US Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget. 2013. Update of statistical area definitions and guidance on their uses, OMB bulletin, 13–01. Washington, DC: US Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget. https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/bulletins/2013/b13-01.pdf.
  307. van Solinge, H., and M. de Vries (eds.). 2001. De Joden in Nederland Anno 2000: Demografisch profiel en binding aan het joodendom. Amsterdam: Aksant.Google Scholar
  308. van Solinge, H., and C. van Praag. 2010. De Joden in Nederland anno 2009 continuteit en veranderin. Diemen: AMB.Google Scholar
  309. Voas, D. 2007. Estimating the Jewish undercount in the 2001 census: A comment on Graham and Waterman 2005. Population, Space and Place 13: 401–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Vulkan, D., and D. Graham. 2008. Population trends among Britain’s strictly orthodox. London: Board of Deputies of British Jews.Google Scholar
  311. Waxman, C.I. 2013. Multiculturalism, conversion, and the future of Israel as a modern state. Israel Studies Review 28(1): 33–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Weinfeld, M., and R.F. Schnoor. 2014. The demography of Canadian Jewry, the census of 2011: Challenges and results. In American Jewish year book 2014, ed. A. Dashefsky and I. Sheskin, 285–299. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  313. Weinfeld, M., R.F. Schnoor, and D.S. Koffman. 2012. Overview of Canadian Jewry. In American Jewish year book 2012, ed. A. Dashefsky and I. Sheskin. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  314. Zentralwohlfahrtsstelle der Juden in Deutschland. 2015. Mitgliederstatistik der jüdischen Gemeinde und Landesverbände in Deutschland für das Yahr 2015. Frankfurt a.M: ZWJD.Google Scholar
  315. Zentralwohlfahrtsstelle der Juden in Deutschland. Annual. Mitgliederstatistik; Der Einzelnen Jüdischen Gemeinden und Landesverbände in Deutschland. Frankfurt a. M: ZWJD.Google Scholar
  316. Zimmerman, B., R. Seid, M.L. Wise, Y. Ettinger, D. Shahaf, E. Sohar, D. Passig, and A. Shvout. 2005a. Arab population in the West Bank and Gaza: The million and a half person gap. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.Google Scholar
  317. Zimmerman, B., R. Seid, and M.L. Wise. 2005b. The million person gap: The Arab population in the West Bank and Gaza, Mideast security and policy studies 65. Ramat Gan: The Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Avraham Harman Institute of Contemporary JewryThe Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations