EyeCo: Effects of Shared Gaze on Social Presence in an Online Cooperative Game
This paper investigates the effects of a shared gaze approach on social presence in an online cooperative game. We explored how a shared gaze visualization changes how players work together and form collaborative strategies based on different combinations of gaze interaction and verbal communication. Our study findings highlight the positive influence of a shared gaze visualization on team cohesion and involvement towards increased perceived social presence among cooperating team members. With our findings we want to inform game designers with insights on the inclusion of gaze-based interaction in remote gaming settings and whether this can strengthen the social bond between players. Our approach aims at fostering social couplings in remote collaborative gaming and investigates their potential to increase the connectedness between players.
KeywordsCooperative games Gaze-based interaction Social presence Shared gaze
The financial support by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy, the Austrian Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology and the federal governments Vorarlberg, Salzburg, Steiermark is gratefully acknowledged (Comet - LiTech).
- 3.Calleja, G.: In-Game: From Immersion to Incorporation. The MIT Press, Cambridge (2011)Google Scholar
- 5.Gajadhar, B., de Kort, Y., IJsselsteijn, W.: Influence of social setting on player experience of digital games. CHI 2008 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI EA 2008), pp. 3099–3104. ACM Press, New York (2008)Google Scholar
- 7.Hudson, M., Cairns, P.: Measuring social presence in team-based digital games. In: Interacting with Presence: HCI and the Sense of Presence in Computer-mediated Environments, p. 83 (2014)Google Scholar
- 11.Lankes, M., Mirlacher, T., Wagner, S., Hochleitner, W.: Whom are you looking for?: the effects of different player representation relations on the presence in gaze-based games. Proceedings of CHI PLAY 2014, pp. 171–179. ACM, New York (2014)Google Scholar
- 12.Manninen, T., Kujanpää, T.: Non-verbal communication forms in multi-player game session. In: Faulkner, X., Finlay, J., Détienne, F. (eds.) People and Computers XVI-Memorable Yet Invisible, pp. 383–401. Springer, London (2002)Google Scholar
- 13.Mansour, S.S., El-Said, M.: Building a bi-directional bridge between social presence and interaction in online games. In: IEEE 17th International Conference on Computer Games (CGAMES), pp. 202–207. IEEE, July 2012Google Scholar
- 14.Maurer, B., Aslan, I., Wuchse, M., Neureiter, K., Tscheligi, M.: Gaze-based onlooker integration: exploring the in-between of active player and passive spectator in co-located gaming. In: Proceedings of the CHI PLAY 2015, pp. 163–173. ACM, New York (2015)Google Scholar
- 15.Mayring, P.: Qualitative content analysis. In: Flick, U., von Kardoff, E., Steinke, I. (eds.) A Companion to Qualitative Research, pp. 266–269. Sage, London (2004)Google Scholar
- 17.Short, J., Williams, E., Christie, B.: The Social Psychology of Telecommunications. Wiley, London (1976)Google Scholar
- 18.Sjöblom, B.: Gaming as a situated collaborative practice. Hum. IT 9(3), 128–165 (2008)Google Scholar
- 19.Sparpweed Games. Ibb & Obb. [PC], Sparpweed Games, played January, 2016 (2014)Google Scholar
- 20.Tamborini, R., Bowman, N.: Presence in video games. In: Bracken, C., Skalski, P. (eds.) Immersed in Media: Telepresence in Everyday Life, pp. 87–109. Routledge, New York (2010)Google Scholar