Advertisement

Establishing and Maintaining Rapport in an Online, Higher Education Setting

  • Harry Kanasa
Chapter
  • 699 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter uses a phenomenological case study methodology to report the attempts of an instructor to establish and maintain rapport in a Masters level course offered in online and mixed mode offerings. The attempts of the instructor to establish rapport will be analysed in relation to the six elements established by Murphy and Rodriguez-Manzanares (Int Rev Res Open Distrib Learn 13:167–190, 2012) as leading to rapport in online settings. The case study demonstrates that when communication is limited in one mode, communication in other modes must increase, increased levels of support are required for instructors as communication increases in the written mode, there is a need to build rapport between online students and that course structure could be added as a further category of analysis in regard to elements influencing rapport-building.

Keywords

Mathematics education Online learning Mixed mode learning Rapport Student engagement Higher education pedagogies 

References

  1. Altman, I. (1990). Conceptualising rapport. Psychological Inquiry, 1(4), 294–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aragon, S.R. (2003). Creating social presence in online environments. New directions for adult and continuing education, 2003(100), 57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bain, K. (2004). What the best college teachers do. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Benson, T.A., Cohen, A.L., & Buskit, W. (2005). Rapport: It’s relation to student attitudes and behaviours towards teachers and classes. Teaching of Psychology, 32, 236–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernieri, F.J. (1988). Coordinated movement and rapport in teacher student interactions. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 12(2), 120–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brinthaupt, T.M., Fisher, L.S., Gardner, J.G., Raffo, D.M., & Woodard, J.B. (2011). What the best online teachers should do. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 7, 4. http://jolt.merlot.org/vol7no4/brinthaupt_1211.htm. Accessed 26 May 2016.
  7. Carey, J.C., Hamilton, D.L., & Shanklin, G. (1986). Development of an instrument to measure rapport between college teachers. Journal of College Student Personnel, 27(3), 269–273.Google Scholar
  8. Clark-Ibanez, M., & Scott, L. (2008). Learning to teach online. Teaching Sociology, 36(1), 34–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Conrad, R., & Donaldson, J.A. (2004). Engaging the online learner: Activities and resources for creative instruction. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  10. Fish, W.W., & Wickersham, L.E. (2009). Best practices for online instructors: Reminders. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 10(3), 279–284.Google Scholar
  11. Frisby, B.N., & Martin, M.M. (2010). Instructor-student and student-student rapport in the classroom. Communication Education, 59(2), 146–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Grandzol, J.R., & Grandzol, C.J. (2006). Best practices for online business education. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 7, 1–18.Google Scholar
  13. Granitz, N. A., Koernig, S. K., & Harich, K. R. (2009;2008;). Now it’s personal: Antecedents and outcomes of rapport between business faculty and their students. Journal of Marketing Education, 31(1), 52–65. doi: 10.1177/0273475308326408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hamilton, L., & Corbett-Whittier, C. (2013). Using case study in education research. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hall, J. A., Roter, D. L., Blanch, D. C., & Frankel, R. M. (2009). Observer–rated rapport in interactions between medical students and standardized patients. Patient Education and Counseling, 76(3), 323–327. doi:  10.1016/j.pec.2009.05.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hutchins, H.M. (2003). Instructional immediacy and the seven principles: Strategies for facilitating online courses. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 6(3). https://www.learntechlib.org/p/161768/. Accessed 12 May 2016.
  17. Jackson, C.D., & Leffingwell, R.J. (1999). The role of instructors in creating math anxiety in students from kindergarten through college. The Mathematics Teacher, 92(7), 583–586.Google Scholar
  18. Kyriacou, C. (2009). Effective teaching in schools: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). London: Nelson Thornes.Google Scholar
  19. Laird, T., & Kuh, G. (2005). Student experiences with information technology and their relationship to other aspects of student engagement. Research in Higher Education, 46(2), 211–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lakin, J.L., & Chartrand, T.L. (2003). Using nonconscious behaviour mimicry to create affiliation and rapport. Psychological Science, 14(4), 334–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lee, R.M., & Fielding, N.G. (2004). Tools for qualitative data analysis. In M.A. Hardy & A. Bryan (Eds.), Handbook of data analysis (pp. 529–546). London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  22. Lewis, C.C., & Abdul-Hamid, H. (2006). Implementing effective online teaching practices: Voices of exemplary faculty. Innovative Higher Education, 31(2), 83–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. LoSchiavo, F.M., & Shatz, M.A. (2002). Students’ reasons for writing on multiple-choice examinations. Teaching of Psychology, 29(2), 138–40.Google Scholar
  24. Macintosh, G. (2009). Examining the antecedents of trust and rapport in services: Discovering new interrelationships. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 16(4), 298–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Maehr, M.L. (1984). Meaning and motivation: Toward a theory of personal investment. In R. Ames & C. Ames (Eds.), Research on motivation in education: Student motivation (Vol. 1, pp. 115–144). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  26. Mandernach, B. J., Gonzales, R. M. & Garrett, A. L. (2006). An examination of online instructor presence via threaded discussion participation. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 2(4), 248–260.Google Scholar
  27. Merriam, S.B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  28. Murphy, E., & Rodriguez-Manzanares, M.A. (2008). Contradictions between the virtual and physical high-school classroom: A third-generation activity theory perspective. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(6), 1061–1072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Murphy, E., & Rodriguez-Manzanares, M.A. (2009). Teachers’ perspectives on motivation in high school distance education. International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education, 23(3), 1–24.Google Scholar
  30. Murphy, E., & Rodriguez-Manzanares, M.A. (2012). Rapport in distance education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 13(1), 167–190.Google Scholar
  31. Puzziferro, M., & Shelton, K. (2009). Supporting online faculty—Revisiting the seven principles (a few years later). Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 12, 3. http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall123/puzziferro123.html. Accessed 12 May 2016.
  32. Richlin, L., & Cox, M.D. (2004). Developing scholarly teaching and the scholarship of teaching and learning through faculty learning communities. New Directions for Teaching and Leaning, 97, 127–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Savin-Baden, M. (2007). A practical guide to problem-based learning online. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34.  Stake, R.E. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.Google Scholar
  35. Swan, P. (2004). I hate mathematics! Paper presented at the 2004 MAV Annual Conference, Monash University, Victoria, Australia, December 2004. Retrieved from http://www.mav.vic.edu.au/files/conferences/2004/Swan.pdf. Accessed 12 May 2016.
  36. The Australian Institute of Teaching and School Leadership. (2016). Australian professional standards for teachers: Graduate level. Retrieved from http://www.aitsl.edu.au/australian-professional-standards-for-teachers/standards/list?c=graduate. Accessed 26 May 2016.
  37. Tickle-Dengen, L., & Rosenthal, R. (1990). The nature of rapport and its nonverbal correlates. Psychological Inquiry, 1(4), 285–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tomes, N. (2001). Technology supported collaborative learning environments. In, N. Falchikov (Ed.), Learning together: Peer tutoring in higher education, (pp. 220–233). Abigdon: Routledge Falmer.Google Scholar
  39. Uusimaki, L., & Nason, R. (2004). Causes underlying pre-service teachers’ negative beliefs and anxieties about mathematics. Proceedings of the 28th Conference for the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, 4, 369–376.Google Scholar
  40. Williamson, B. (2013). The future of the curriculum: School knowledge in a digital age. Retrieved from https://mitpress.mit.edu/sites/default/files/titles/free_download/9780262518826_The_Future_Of_The_Curriculum.pdf. Accessed 26 May 2016.
  41. Woollcott, L., Booth, S., & Cameron, A. (2014). Knowing your students in large diverse classes: A phenomenographic case study. Higher Education, 67(6), 747–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yin, R.K. (2009). Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.Google Scholar
  43. Yuan, L., & Powell, S. (2013). MOOCs and open education: Implications for higher education. Retrieved from http://publications.cetis.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/MOOCs-and-Open-Education.pdf. Accessed 26 May 2016.
  44. Zappala, J. (2005). A short take: Online teaching. Community College Enterprise, 11(1), 61.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry Kanasa
    • 1
  1. 1.Lecturer in Science Education, Griffith UniversityQueenslandAustralia

Personalised recommendations