Personality and Agents: Formalising State and Effects

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9872)


Personality is one of the central elements determining the behaviour of humans. It influences other cognitive mechanisms such as emotions and moods and thus effects attention and actions. However, in the literature about cognitive agents, work that investigates the effects of personality is rare and somewhat disconnected. Bridging this gap represents one step towards conceptualising human behaviour in software agents, e.g. for resource-bounded agents in highly-dynamic environments or for virtual humans with realistic behaviour. The integration of personality in agents also requires its integration into reasoning processes used in agent-based systems. In this paper, we propose a formalisation that enables reasoning about the effectsand state of personality. This formalisation is integrated into the ‘\(\mathcal {L}\)ogic \(\mathcal {O}\)f \(\mathcal {R}\)ational \(\mathcal {A}\)gents’ (\(\mathcal {LORA}\)) and is the foundation for reasoning about the personality of other agents and the influence of personality on the action selection process.


User/machine systems Human factors Software psychology Cognitive models Logic-based approaches and methods 


  1. 1.
    Adam, C.: Emotions: from psychological theories to logic formalization and Implementation in a BDI agent. L’ Institute National Polytechnique de Toulouse (2007)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahrndt, S., Aria, A., Fähndrich, J., Albayrak, S.: Ants in the OCEAN: modulating agents with personality for planning with humans. In: Bulling, N. (ed.) EUMAS 2014. LNCS, vol. 8953, pp. 3–18. Springer, Heidelberg (2015)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ahrndt, S., Fähndrich, J., Albayrak, S.: Modelling of personality in agents: from psychology to implementation. In: Bordini, E., Weiss, Y. (eds.) Proceedings of the HAIDM 2015, Co-located with AAMAS 2015. pp. 1–16. IFAAMAS (2015)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ahrndt, S., Fähndrich, J., Lützenberger, M., Albayrak, S.: Modelling of personality in agents: from psychology to logical formalisation and implementation. In: Bordini, E., Weiss, Y. (eds.) Proceedings of the AAMAS 2015, pp. 1691–1692. IFAAMS (2015)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bevacqua, E., de Sevin, E., Pelachaud, C., McRorie, M., Sneddon, I.: Building credible agents: behaviour influenced by personality and emotional traits. In: Lèvy, B., Yamanaka, A. (eds.) Proceedings of the KEER 2010, pp. 1–10 (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Caspi, A., Roberts, B., Shiner, R.: Personality development: stability and change 56 453–484 (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dastani, M., Lorini, E.: A logic of emotions: from appraisal to coping. In: Conitzer, L., Winikoff, M., Padgham, L., van der Hock, W. (eds.) Proceedings of the AAMAS 2012. IFAAMAS (2012)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Durupinar, F., Allbeck, J., Pelechano, N., Badler, N.: Creating crowd variation with the OCEAN personality model. In: Padgham, P., Müller, P. (eds.) Proceedings of the AAMAS 2008, pp. 1217–1220. IFAAMAS (2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hampson, S.E., Goldberg, L.R.: A first large-cohort study of personality-trait stability over the 40 years between elementary school and midlife 91, 763–779 (2006)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jones, H., Saunier, J., Lourdeaux, D.: Personality, emotions and physiology in a BDI agent architecture: the pep -\(>>\) BDI model. In: Proceedings of IAT 2009, pp. 263–266. IEEE (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bressane Neto, A.F., Corrêa da Silva, F.S.: On the construction of synthetic characters with personality and emotion. In: da Rocha Costa, A.C., Vicari, R.M., Tonidandel, F. (eds.) SBIA 2010. LNCS, vol. 6404, pp. 102–111. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Oatley, K., Jenkins, J.M.: Understanding Emotions. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford (1996)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ortony, A., Norman, D., Revelle, W.: Affect and proto-affect in effectivefunctioning. In: Fellous, J.M., Arbib, M.A. (eds.) Who Needs Emotions?. Series in Affective Science, pp. 173–202. Oxford University Press, New York (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ozer, D.J., Benet-Martínez, V.: Personality and the prediction of consequential outcomes. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 57, 401–421 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    de Raad, B., Mulder, E., Kloosterman, K., Hofstee, W.K.: Personality-descriptive verbs. Eur. J. Pers. 2, 81–96 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Revelle, W., Scherer, K.R.: Personality and emotion. In: Sander, D., Scherer, K. (eds.) The Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences. Series in Affective Science, p. 512. Oxford University Press, New York (2010)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Salvit, J., Sklar, E.: Modulating agent behavior using human personality type. In: Proceedings of the HAIDM at AAMAS 2012, pp. 145–160 (2012)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Steunebrink, B.: The Logical Structure of Emotions. Utrecht University, The Netherlands (2010)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wilks, L.: The stability of personality over time as a function of personality trait dominance. Griffith Univ. Undergraduated St. Psy. J. 1, 1–9 (2009)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wooldridge, M.: Reasoning about Rational Agents. Intelligent Robotics and Autonomous Agents. The MIT Press, Cambridge (2000)zbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DAI-Laboratory of the Technische Universität BerlinFaculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations