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Neurovascular Coupling Mediated by Neuronal Derived-Nitric Oxide: Mechanisms in Health and Dysfunction with Impact on Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Cátia F. Lourenço
  • Ana Ledo
  • Rui M. Barbosa
  • João LaranjinhaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Biochemistry in Health and Disease book series (ABHD, volume 16)

Abstract

Neurovascular coupling is an intricate mechanism whereby local blood flow is strictly adjusted in time and space to neuronal activity. Intimately associated to glutamatergic neurotransmission, it is a complex mechanism that relies on the concerted communication of neurons and vascular cells, with assumed enrolment of other cell types. Nitric oxide (NO) is uniquely suited to integrate the activity of all components of the neurovascular unit. Due to its hydrophobicity and reduced size, NO can diffuse in the brain tissue and integrate the activity of multiple cells irrespective of their physical connection to the producing cell.

In this chapter we review evidence supporting the involvement of NO derived directly from neuronal activity as a result of glutamatergic neurotransmission in neurovascular coupling. Furthermore, we discuss dysfunction of NO-mediated neurovascular coupling as a fundamental process in the aging brain and in Alzheimer’s disease, emphasizing the putative role of oxidative stress.

Keywords

Nitric oxide Neurovascular coupling Alzheimer's Disease Aging Oxidative stress 

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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cátia F. Lourenço
    • 1
  • Ana Ledo
    • 1
  • Rui M. Barbosa
    • 1
  • João Laranjinha
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

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