Skip to main content

Transparency and Reliability in Neuromarketing Research

Abstract

In this chapter, we discuss about the transparency and reliability issues in the practice of the application of neuroscience-based methodologies on relevant marketing stimuli (e.g., neuromarketing). It is hypothesized that one of the reasons of the misperception and overestimation by the public opinion and mass media of the actual capabilities of the neuromarketing to inform marketing researcher is due to the lack of the transparency about the methodologies employed by the neuromarketing companies. In fact, different companies offer services that are based on proprietary computational methods and approaches that are not fully validated or disclosed through scientific publications to the scientific community. This opacity in the methodologies employed by some companies makes it difficult for the scientists to separate supported and unsupported claims of validity of the services offered by those companies. Such confusion is reflected in an often misplaced communication toward the public opinion and the final users of these methodologies about the effective capability of such approach to capture the generation of the decision making of the persons in front of marketing stimuli.

Keywords

  • Neuromarketing
  • Marketing research
  • Transparency
  • Methodology

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-45609-6_6
  • Chapter length: 11 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-45609-6
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   139.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 6.1

References

  • Ariely D (2009) Predictably irrational. The hidden forces that shape our decisions. Harper, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Ariely D, Berns GS (2010) Neuromarketing: the hope and hype of neuroimaging in business. Nat Rev Neurosci 11(4):284–292

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Babiloni F, Carducci F, Cincotti F, Del Gratta C, Roberti GM, Romani GL, Rossini PM, Babiloni C (2000) Integration of high resolution EEG and functional magnetic resonance in the study of human movement-related potentials. Methods Inf Med 39(2):179–182

    Google Scholar 

  • Babiloni C, Babiloni F, Carducci F, Cincotti F, Rosciarelli F, Rossini PM, Arendt‐Nielsen L, Chen A (2001) Mapping of early and late human somatosensory evoked brain potentials to phasic galvanic painful stimulation. Hum Brain Mapp 12(3):168–179

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Babiloni C, Babiloni F, Carducci F, Cappa S, Cincotti F, Del Percio C, Miniussi C, Moretti DV, Pasqualetti P, Rossi S, Sosta K (2004) Human cortical EEG rhythms during long-term episodic memory task. A high-resolution EEG study of the HERA model. Neuroimage 21(4):1576–1584

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bazerman M, Tenbrunsel A (2011) Blind spots. Why we fail to do what’s right and what to do about it. Princeton University Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  • Blakeslee S (2004) If your brain has a ‘buy button’, what pushes it? New York Times, October 10. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/19/science/19neuro.html?pagewanted=1&_r=0. Accessed 15 Jan 2016

  • Brenkert G (1998) Marketing and the vulnerable. Bus Ethics Q 1:7–20

    Google Scholar 

  • Bruce AS, Bruce JM, Black WR, Lepping RJ, Henry JM, Cherry JBC, Martin LE et al (2014) Branding and a child’s brain: an fMRI study of neural responses to logos. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 9(1):118–122

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bublitz C (2014) Cognitive liberty or the international human right to freedom of thought. In: Clausen J, Levy N (eds) Handbook of neuroethics. Springer, Dodrecht, pp 1309–1333

    Google Scholar 

  • Burkitt L (2009) Neuromarketing: companies use neuroscience for consumer insight. Forbes, October 29. http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2009/1116/marketing-hyundai-neurofocus-brainwaves-battle-for-the-brain.html. Accessed 15 Jan 2016

  • Casabona C (1999) Biotechnology. Law and bioethics. Bruylant, Bruxelles

    Google Scholar 

  • Chester J (2012) Cookie wars: how new data profiling and targeting techniques threaten citizens and consumers in the ‘big data’ era. In: Gutwirth S et al (eds) European data protection: in good health? Springer, Dodrecht, pp 53–78

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Crawford MB (2008) The limits of neuro-talk. New Atlantis 19:65–78

    Google Scholar 

  • Davidson RJ (2004) What does the prefrontal cortex ‘do’ in affect: perspectives on frontal EEG asymmetry research. Biol Psychol 67(1–2):219–233

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fleischhut J (2011) How to influence emotions by means of modern neurobiology and psycholinguistics in order to change eating habits and for a better health. J Verbr Lebensm 6:87–94

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ioannides AA, Liu L, Theofilou D, Dammers J, Burne T, Ambler T et al (2000) Real time processing of affective and cognitive stimuli in the human brain extracted from MEG signals. Brain Topogr 13(1):11–19

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kahneman D (2011) Thinking, fast and slow. Penguin, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Klein T (2007) Distributive justice in marketing. J Macromark 28:33–43

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lee N, Broderick AJ, Chamberlain L (2007) What is “neuromarketing”? A discussion and agenda for future research. Int J Psychophysiol 63(2):199–204

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Levallois C et al (2012) Translating upwards: linking the neural and social sciences via neuroeconomics. Nat Rev Neurosci 13:789–797

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mattia D, Babiloni F, Romigi A, Cincott F, Bianchi L, Sperli F, Placidi F, Bozzao A, Giacomini P, Floris R, Marciani MG (2003) Quantitative EEG and dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI in Alzheimer’s disease: a correlative study. Clin Neurophysiol 114(7):1210–1216

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Murphy ER, Illes J, Reiner PB (2008) Neuroethics of neuromarketing. J Consum Behav 7:293–302

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Oullier O (2012) Clear up this fuzzy thinking on brain scans. Nature 483:7

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Plassmann H, Ramsoy TZ, Milosavljevic M (2012) Branding the brain: a critical review and outlook. J Consum Psychol 22:18–36

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sententia W (2004) Cognitive liberty and converging technologies for improving human cognition. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1013:221–228

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Silberstein RB, Harris PG, Nield GA, Pipingas A (2000) Frontal steady-state potential changes predict long-term recognition memory performance. Int J Psychophys 39(1):79–85

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Singer T (2015) How to build a caring economy. World Economic Forum, January 24. https://agenda.weforum.org/2015/01/how-to-build-a-caring-economy/. Accessed 15 Jan 2016

  • Spence E (2013) The advertising of happiness and the branding of values. In: Boylan M (ed) Business ethics. Pearson, Upper Saddle River

    Google Scholar 

  • Spence E, Van Heekeren B (2005) Advertising ethics. Pearson, Upper Saddle River

    Google Scholar 

  • Thaler RH, Sunstein CR (2003) Libertarian paternalism is not an oxymoron. Univ Chic Law Rev 70:1159–1202

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thaler RH, Sunstein CR (2009) Nudge. Improving decisions about health, wealth and happiness. Penguin, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Vecchiato G, Toppi J, Astolfi L, De Vico Fallani F, Cincotti F, Mattia D, Bez F, Babiloni F (2011) Spectral EEG frontal asymmetries correlate with the experienced pleasantness of TV commercial advertisements. Med Biol Eng Comput 49(5):579–583

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Vecchiato G, Cherubino P, Trettel A, Babiloni F (2013) Neuroelectrical brain imaging tools for the study of the efficacy of TV advertising stimuli and their application to neuromarketing. Springer, Heidelberg

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zaltman G (2003) How customers think: essential insights into the mind of the market. Harvard Business Press, Boston

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Arianna Trettel .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Trettel, A. et al. (2017). Transparency and Reliability in Neuromarketing Research. In: Thomas, A., Pop, N., Iorga, A., Ducu, C. (eds) Ethics and Neuromarketing. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-45609-6_6

Download citation