The Parity Hamiltonian Cycle Problem in Directed Graphs

  • Hiroshi NishiyamaEmail author
  • Yukiko Yamauchi
  • Shuji Kijima
  • Masafumi Yamashita
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9849)


This paper investigates a variant of the Hamiltonian cycle, the parity Hamiltonian cycle (PHC) problem: a PHC in a directed graph is a closed walk (possibly using an arc more than once) which visits every vertex odd number of times. Nishiyama et al. (2015) investigated the undirected version of the PHC problem, and gave a simple characterization that a connected undirected graph has a PHC if and only if it has even order or it is non-bipartite. This paper gives a complete characterization when a directed graph has a PHC, and shows that the PHC problem in a directed graph is solved in polynomial time. The characterization, unlike with the undirected case, is described by a linear system over GF(2).


Hamiltonian cycle T-joins Linear system over GF(2) 



This work is partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 15K15938, 25700002, 15H02666, and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas MEXT Japan “Exploring the Limits of Computation (ELC).”


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroshi Nishiyama
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yukiko Yamauchi
    • 1
  • Shuji Kijima
    • 1
  • Masafumi Yamashita
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical EngineeringKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

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