Advertisement

Boundaries of Open Innovation and Games

  • Maximilian WittEmail author
Chapter
  • 6.6k Downloads
Part of the Progress in IS book series (PROIS)

Abstract

Over the past decade, systems that are used to support the early phases of the innovation process have evolved from simple suggestion boxes to sophisticated social media platforms for the development and refinement of ideas. Organisations who want to profit from the use of these platforms face the following two significant and interconnected challenges: First, organisations have to motivate (groups of) individuals to participate, and they must place them in a state of high involvement and flow. Second, organisations must inspire individuals in order to generate creative output. One activity that leads to high motivation, to a feeling of flow and involvement, and to creative output, is play. This chapter focuses on the question of how to design social media based on open innovation tools to harness the potential of play by applying game mechanics to innovation management. It is argued that there are two possibilities: either enriching open innovation tools with game mechanics (gamification) or adjusting a multiplayer online game to the purpose of ideation (online ideation game). This chapter sheds light on these two possibilities and gives practical implications for implementation. The first section of this chapter describes how specific game mechanics can be implemented in social media based on open innovation tools. The second section of this chapter illustrates a number of online ideation games that have recently been applied and shows how the previous described game mechanics can also serve as building blocks for those games. The third section of this chapter gives managers key lessons at hand who strive to apply game mechanics to innovation management. The key lessons relate to (1) the planning and design phase and (2) the introduction and operation phase of a gamified open innovation tool or an online ideation game.

Keywords

Innovation Management Ranking List Social Media Platform Operation Phase Game Mechanic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adamczyk, S., Bullinger, A. C. & Möslein, K. M. (2010). Call for attention—attracting and activating innovators. Paper presented at the R&D Management Conference, 30 June–2 July, Manchester, http://wi1.uni-erlangen.de/sites/wi1.uni-erlangen.de/files/Adamczyk_Bullinger__Moeslein_Call_for_Attention_RDMgmt2010.pdf
  2. Caillois, R. (1961). Man, play, and games (M. Barash, Trans., 2001). New York: Free Press of Glencoe.Google Scholar
  3. Chesbrough, H. W. (2003). The era of open innovation. MIT Sloan Management Review, 44(3), 35–42.Google Scholar
  4. Cooper, S., Khatib, F., Treuille, A., Barbero, J., Lee, J., Beenen, M., et al. (2010). Predicting protein structures with a multiplayer online game. Nature, 466(7307), 756–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  6. Dansky, J. L. (1980). Cognitive consequences of sociodramatic play and exploration training for economically disadvantaged preschoolers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 21(1), 47–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dellarocas, C. (2011). Designing reputation systems for the social web. In H. Masum & M. Tovey (Eds.), The reputation society. How online opinions are reshaping the offline world (pp. 3–11). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  8. Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R. & Nacke, L. (2011a). From game design elements to gamefulness: Defining gamification. Paper presented at the MindTrek’11 Conference, 28–30 September, Tampere, Finland, https://www.cs.auckland.ac.nz/courses/compsci747s2c/lectures/paul/definition-deterding.pdf. Accessed 14 January 2016.
  9. Deterding, S., Khaled, R., Nacke, L. E. & Dixon, D. (2011b). Gamification: Toward a definition. In Paper presented at the CHI 2011 Workshop Gamification, 7–11 May, Vancouver, BC, Canada, http://gamification-research.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/CHI_2011_Gamification_Workshop.pdf. Accessed 14 January 2016.
  10. Farmer, R. (2011). Web reputation systems and the real world. In H. Masum, & M. Tovey (Eds.), The reputation society. How online opinions are reshaping the offline world (pp. 13–24). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  11. Füller, J. (2009). Anleitung zum Kreativsein. Harvard Business Manager, 9, 98–101.Google Scholar
  12. Füller, J. (2010). Refining virtual co-creation from a consumer perspective. California Management Review, 52(2), 98–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Füller, J., Möslein, K. M., Hutter, K. & Haller, J. B. A. (2010). Evaluation games—how to make the crowd your jury. In K. P. Fähnrich & B. Franczyk (Eds.), Lecture notes informatics (LNI) proceedings, P-175 (pp. 955–960).Google Scholar
  14. Garris, R., Ahlers, R., & Driskell, J. E. (2002). Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice model. Simulation & Gaming, 33(4), 441–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hacker, S., & von Ahn, L. (2009). Matchin: Eliciting user preferences with an online game, In Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems in Boston, Massachusetts, 2009, (pp. 1207–1216). ACM: New York.Google Scholar
  16. Hutter, K., Hautz, J., Füller, J., Matzler, K., & Mayr, A. (2010). Ideenwettbewerbe als innovatives Markenbindungsinstrument. Marketing Review St. Gallen, 27(4), 26–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jacobs, C., & Heracleous, L. T. (2006). Constructing shared understanding: The role of embodied metaphors in organization development. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 42(2), 207–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kant, I. (1787). Critique of pure reason (J. M. D. Meiklejohn, Trans., 1950). The Pennsylvania State University. http://www2.hn.psu.edu/faculty/jmanis/kant/Critique-Pure-Reason.pdf. Accessed 14 January 2016.
  19. Kim, A. J. (2010). Gamification workshop. http://www.slideshare.net/amyjokim/gamification-workshop-2010
  20. Lampe, C. (2011). The role of reputation systems in managing online communities. In H. Masum & M. Tovey (Eds.), The reputation society. How online opinions are reshaping the offline world (pp. 13–24). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  21. Leimeister, J. M., Huber, M., Bretschneider, U., & Krcmar, H. (2009). Leveraging crowdsourcing—theory-driven design, implementation and evaluation of activation-supporting components for IT-based idea competitions. Journal of Management Information Systems, 26(1), 197–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mainemelis, C., & Ronson, S. (2006). Ideas are born in fields of play: Towards a theory of play and creativity in organizational settings. Research in Organizational Behavior, 27(6), 81–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Malone, T. W. (1982). Heuristics for designing enjoyable user interfaces: Lessons from computer games. In Proceedings of the 1982 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 63–68). Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1982, ACM: Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  24. Malone, T. W., Laubacher, R. & Dellarocas, C. (2009). Harnessing crowds: Mapping the genome of collective intelligence. Working Paper No. 2009-001, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT): Cambridge, 3 February.Google Scholar
  25. McGonigal, J. (2011). Reality is broken: Why games make us better and how they can change the world. London: Random House. Google Scholar
  26. Möslein, K. M., Haller, J. B. A., & Bullinger, A. C. (2010). Open evaluation: Ein IT-basierter ansatz für die bewertung innovativer konzepte, HMD sonderheft: IT-basiertes Innovationsmanagement, 273, 21–34.Google Scholar
  27. Panksepp, J., & Burgdorf, J. (2003). ‘Laughing’ rats and the evolutionary antecedents of human joy? Physiology & Behavior, 79(3), 533–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Robra-Bissantz, S. & Lattemann, C. (2005). Customer Integration and Customer Governance—Neue Konzepte für die Anbieter-Kunden-Beziehung im B2C-E-Business. Paper presented at the Gemeinschaft in Neuen Medien (GeNeMe), 6–7 October, Dresden. http://www.uni-potsdam.de/db/jpcg/Publikationen/2005_9_GENEME_CI.pdf. Accessed 14 January 2016.
  29. Reeves, B., & Read, J. L. (2009). Total engagement: Using games and virtual worlds to change the way people work and businesses compete. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.Google Scholar
  30. Salen, K., & Zimmerman, E. (2004). Rules of play: Game design fundamentals. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  31. Scheiner, C. W. & Witt, M. (2012). The longitudinal impact of game mechanics on motivation in the fuzzy front end. European Academy of Management (EURAM): Rotterdam, Netherlands, 6 June–8 June.Google Scholar
  32. Scheiner, C. W., Witt, M., Robra-Bissantz, S. & Voigt, K.-I. (2012). Einsatz von Spielmechaniken in Ideenwettbewerben: Einsatzmotive, Wirkungen und Herausforderungen. Paper presented at the Multikonferenz Wirtschaftsinformatik (MKWI), 29 February–2 March, Braunschweig, http://mkwi2012.de/downloads/MKWI2012_Tagungsband.pdf. Accessed 14 January 2016.
  33. Schrage, M. (2000). Serious play. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  34. Shneiderman, B. (1999). User interfaces for creativity support tools. In E. A. Edmonds, & Candy, L. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Third Conference on Creativity and Cognition in Loughborough, England, 1999 (pp. 15–22). ACM Press: New York.Google Scholar
  35. Spariosu, M. (1989). Dionysis reborn: Play and the aesthetic dimension in modern philosophical and scientific discourse. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Statler, M., Roos, J., & Victor, B. (2009). Ain’t misbehavin’: Taking play seriously in organizations. Journal of Change Management, 9(1), 87–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Takahashi, D. (2012). Game designers and rockefeller foundation attack poverty with fun. http://venturebeat.com/2012/04/03/game-designers-and-rockefeller-foundation-attack-poverty-with-fun. Accessed 14 January 2016.
  38. Witt, M., Scheiner, C. W., Robra-Bissantz, S. & Voigt, K.-I. (2012a). Creative process engagement in a multiplayer online ideation game. Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Proceedings, P-208, (pp. 978–991).Google Scholar
  39. Witt, M., Scheiner, C. W., Skornia, R., Robra-Bissantz, S. & Voigt, K.-I. (2011b). Wie Spielen komplexe Innovationsvorhaben unterstützt - Eine Fallstudienanalyse, Beiträge zur wissenschaftlichen Konferenz “Innovation und Wettbewerb”, Sofia.Google Scholar
  40. Zichermann, G., & Linder, J. (2010). Game-based marketing: Inspire customer loyalty through rewards, challenges and contests. New Jersey: Wiley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Telefonica Germany GmbH & Co OHGMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations