Customer-Oriented Strategies and Gamification—The Example of Open Customer Innovation

  • Susanne Robra-Bissantz
  • Christoph LattemannEmail author
Part of the Progress in IS book series (PROIS)


Companies today seek to deepen their relationships with customers. As a very demanding concept we observe collaboration with customers and the integration of customers in firm’s value chain activities. Also companies increasingly bank on introducing game mechanisms in order to motivate common interactions. In this chapter we take Open Customer Innovation (OCI) as an example for customer relations. Starting with the problems that can be observed, we deduce possibly successful effects of gamification. Finally we introduce game mechanisms that can potentially save OCI from negative consequences and moreover serve as a guide for a serious approach to successful customer relationship management.


Intrinsic Motivation Innovation Process Open Innovation Extrinsic Motivation Group Affiliation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Akgün, A. E., Lynn, G. S., & Yılmaz, C. (2006). Learning process in new product development teams and effects on product success: A socio-cognitive perspective. Industrial Marketing Management, 35(2), 210–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amabile, T. M. (1988). A model of creativity and innovation in organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 10(1), 123–167.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Björk, S., & Holopainen, J. (2005). Patterns in game design. Hingham, Massachusetts: Charles River Media Inc.Google Scholar
  6. Blohm, I., Bretschneider, U., Leimeister, J. M., & Krcmar, H. (2010). Does collaboration among participants lead to better ideas in IT-based idea competitions? An empirical investigation. International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations, 9(2), 106–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowers, K. S., Regeher, G., Balthazard, C., & Parker, K. (1990). Intuition in the context of discovery. Cognitive Psychology, 22(1), 72–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brun, E., & Saetre, A. S. (2008). Ambiguity reduction in new product development projects. International Journal of Innovation Management, 12, 573–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chesbrough, H. W. (2003). The era of open innovation. MIT Sloan Management Review, 44, 35–42.Google Scholar
  10. Cronk, R. (2012). Using gamification to increase student engagement and participation in class discussion. In TEEM’15 Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality (pp. 45–250).Google Scholar
  11. Cross, N. (2008). Engineering design methods: Strategies for product design. New Jersey: Wiley.Google Scholar
  12. Cyskcentsmihaly, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  13. Dansky, J. L. (1980). Make-believe: A mediator of the relationship between play and associative fluency. Child Development, 576–579.Google Scholar
  14. Dansky, J. L., & Silverman, I. W. (1973). Effects of play on associative fluency in preschool-aged children. Developmental Psychology, 9(1), 38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dansky, J. L., & Silverman, I. W. (1975). Play: A general facilitator of associative fluency. Developmental Psychology, 11(1), 104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Davis, S. (1987). Future perfect, reading. MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  17. Deterding S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness: Defining “gamification”. In Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments (pp. 9–15).Google Scholar
  18. Flatla, D. R., Gutwin, C., Nacke, L. E., Bateman, S., & Mandryk, R. L. (2011). Calibration games: Making calibration tasks enjoyable by adding motivating game elements. In UIST’11—Proceedings of the 24th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (pp. 403–412).Google Scholar
  19. Flury, B. (2013). A first course in multivariate statistics. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
  20. Frey, B. S., & Osterloh, M. (2002). Successful management by motivation. Balancing intrinsic and extrinsic incentives. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  21. Gassmann, O., & Enkel, E. (2006). Open innovation. ZfO Wissen, 3, 132–138.Google Scholar
  22. Hutter, K., Hautz, J., Fuller, J., Mueller, J., & Matzler, K. (2011). Communitition: The tension between competition and collaboration in community-based design contests. Creativity and Innovation Management, 20(1), 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jörgensen, J. H., Bergenholtz, C., Goduscheit, R. C., & Rasmussen, E. S. (2011). Managing inter-firm collaboration in the fuzzy front-end: Structure as a two-edge sword. International Journal of Innovation Management, 15, 145–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kapp, K. M. (2012). The gamification of learning and instruction: Game-based methods and strategies for training and education. San Francisco: Wiley.Google Scholar
  25. Khaddage, F., & Lattemann, C. (2014). Mobile gamification in education—Engage, educate and entertain. In Gamified Mobile Apps, SITE Conference 2014. Google Scholar
  26. Lattemann, C. (2014). On the convergence of corporate governance practices in emerging markets. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 9(2), 316–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lattemann, C., & Fritz, K. (2014). Learning integrative thinking. Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, 2014(1), 1857–1864.Google Scholar
  28. Lattemann, C., & Robra-Bissantz, S. (2006). Customer integration–social and technology based concepts for a customer governance. Frontiers of e-Business Research, 193–205.Google Scholar
  29. Lieberman, J. N. (1977). Playfullness. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  30. Mainemelis, B., & Ronson, S. (2006). Ideas are born in fields of play: Toward a theory of play and creativity in organizational settings. Research in Organizational Behavior, 27, 81–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Malone, T. W. (1982). Heuristics for designing enjoyable user interfaces: Lessons from computer game. In Human Factors in Computing Systems.Google Scholar
  32. Maslow, A. H. (1968). Toward a psychology of being. New York: Lushena Books.Google Scholar
  33. Nambisan, S. (2002). Designing virtual customer environments for new product development: Toward a theory. Acad Manage Rev, 27, 392–413.Google Scholar
  34. Neyer, A.-K., Bullinger, A. C., & Moeslein, K. M. (2009). Integrating inside and outside innovators: A sociotechnical systems perspective. R&D Management, 39, 410–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nicholson, S. (2015). A recipe for meaningful gamification. In T. Reiners & L. Wood (Eds.), Gamification of education and business (pp. 1–20). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  36. Okan, Z. (2003). Edutainment: Is learning at risk? British Journal of Educational Technology, 34(3), 255–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pavlus, J. (2010). The game of life. Scientific American, 303, 43–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Piller, F. T.(2004). Innovation and value co-creation (Habilitation dissertation). University of Technology Munich.Google Scholar
  39. Piller, F. T., & Stotko, C. M. (2003). Mass customization und kundenintegration. Düsseldorf.Google Scholar
  40. Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2000). Co-opting customer competence. Harvard Business Review, 78, 79–87.Google Scholar
  41. Raymond, E. S. (1999). The cathedral and the bazaar. Available from April 07, 2016.
  42. Reeves, B., & Read, J. L. (2009). Total engagement. Using Games and Virtual Worlds to Change the Way People Work and Businesses Compete, 132–133.Google Scholar
  43. Robra-Bissantz, S., & Lattemann, C. (2005). Customer integration und customer governance—Neue Konzepte für die Anbieter-Kunden-Beziehung im B2C-E-Business. In Presented at the GeNeMe (pp. 25–38). Dresden.Google Scholar
  44. Runco, M. A. (1991). Divergent thinking. Michigan: Ablex Publishing.Google Scholar
  45. Russ, S. W. (2004). Play in child development and psychotherapy: Toward empirical practice. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  46. Russ, S. W., & Schafer, E. D. (2006). Affect in fantasy play, emotion in memories, and divergent thinking. Creativity Research Journal, 18(3), 347–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Seja, A. L., & Russ, S. W. (1999). Children’s fantasy play and emotional understanding. Journal of Clincal Child Psychology, 28(2), 269–277.Google Scholar
  48. Shipton, H., West, M. A., Dawson, J., Birdi, K., & Malcolm, P. (2006). HRM as a predictor of innovation. Human Resource Management Journal, 16(1), 3–27.Google Scholar
  49. Shneiderman, B. (2004). Designing for fun: How can we design user interfaces to be more fun? Interactions, 11(5), 48–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Simões, J., Redondo, R. D. A., & Vilas, A. F. N. (2013). A social gamification framework for a K-6 learning platform. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(2), 345–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sonnenburg, S. (2007). Kooperative Kreativität: Theoretische Basisentwürfe und organisationale Erfolgsfaktoren. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  52. Squire, K., & Jenkins, H. (2003). Harnessing the power of games in education. Insight, 3(1), 5–33.Google Scholar
  53. Sutton-Smith, B. (1997). The ambiguity of play. Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Thomas J. C., & Schneider M. L. (Eds.) (1984). Human factors in computer systems. Norwood: Ablex Publishing Corporation. Google Scholar
  55. Tsang, E. W. K., & Zahra, S. A. (2008). Organizational unlearning. Human Relations, 61(10), 1435–1462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Vassileva, J. (2012). Motivating participation in social computing applications: A user modeling perspective. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, 22(1–2), 177–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Von Ahn, L., & Dabbish, L. (2008). Designing games with a purpose. Communications of the ACM, 51(8), 58–67.Google Scholar
  58. Von Hippel, E., & Katz, R. (2002). Shifting innovation to users via toolkits. Management Science, 48, 821–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wikström, S. (1996). The customer as co-producer. European Journal of Marketing, 30(4), 6–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wynn, D. E. (2004). Organizational structure of open source projects: A life cycle approach. In Proceedings of Southern Association of Information Systems (pp. 285–299).Google Scholar
  61. Xu, Y. (2012). Literature review on web application gamification and analytics (CSDL Technical Report 11-05). Available from April 05, 2016.
  62. Zichermann, G., & Linder, J. (2010). Game-based marketing: inspire customer loyalty through rewards, challenges, and contests. New Jersey: Wiley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für WirtschaftsinformatikTechnische Universität BraunschweigBraunschweigGermany
  2. 2.Information ManagementJacobs University BremenBremenGermany

Personalised recommendations