Host Response to Synthetic Versus Natural Biomaterials

  • Kishor Sarkar
  • Yingfei Xue
  • Shilpa SantEmail author


Biomaterials have gained tremendous attention in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications due to their ability to enhance functional tissue regeneration. After implantation of biomaterial-based device or drug carrier, it comes in contact with surrounding cells and consequently elicits confined and/or chronic inflammatory responses. The immune responses to biomaterials do not depend only on the method of implantation such as surgery and injection but also depend on source of biomaterials and their physicochemical properties such as molecular weight, chemical composition, mechanical properties and degradation rate. Therefore, it is necessary to thoroughly understand the biological responses to the implanted biomaterials. In this chapter, a brief discussion about different natural and synthetic biomaterials and their inflammatory responses is provided. Different strategies to minimize the immune response have also been discussed.


Natural biomaterial Synthetic biomaterial Biocompatibility Immune response Immunomodulation 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of PharmacyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of Bioengineering, Swanson School of EngineeringUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.McGowan Institute for Regenerative MedicineUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

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