Redoximorphic Features in Albeluvisols from South-Western Ukraine

  • Volodymyr NikorychEmail author
  • Wojciech Szymański
  • Michał Skiba
Conference paper


Polarizing microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine the distribution, size, shape, and chemical composition of Fe–Mn nodules in Albeluvisols (Retisols) from south-western Ukraine and the relationship of these pedological features with redox processes. Intrusive, impregnative, and depletion features were observed. The highest content of hard nodules is present in the upper part of the solum, indicating that cyclic redox processes occur most often above the illuvial horizon. The nodules are enriched in Fe and Mn (4–14 and 7–40 times, respectively). The chemical composition of the surface of the nodule in contact with microorganisms indicates their crucial role in the accumulation of Fe and Mn and nodule formation.


Fe–Mn nodules Fe–Mn concretions Redox Albeluvisols Micromorphology Scanning electron microscopy 


  1. Aristovskaya TV (1980) Microbiology of soil formation processes. Nauka, Leningrad (Russian)Google Scholar
  2. Brewer R (1964) Fabric and mineral analysis of soils. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Cornu S, Cattle JA, Samouëlian A et al (2009) Impact of redox cycles on manganese, iron, cobalt, and lead in nodules. Soil Sci Soc Am J 73:1231–1241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dawson BSW, Ferguson JE, Campbell AS, Cutler EJB (1985) Distribution of elements in some Fe–Mn nodules and an iron-pan in some gley soils of New Zealand. Geoderma 35:127–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gasparatos D, Tarenidis D, Haidouti D, Oikonomou G (2005) Microscopic structure of soil Fe–Mn nodules: environmental implications. Environ Chem Lett 2:175–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hickey PJ, McDaniel PA, Strawn DG (2008) Characterization of iron–manganese cemented redoximorphic aggregates on wetland soils contaminated with mine wastes. J Environ Qual 37:2375–2385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hseu ZY, Chen ZS (1996) Saturation, reduction and redox morphology of seasonally-flooded Alfisols in Taiwan. Soil Sci Soc Am J 60:941–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Huang L, Hong J, Tan W et al (2008) Characteristics of micromorphology and element distribution of iron-manganese cutans in typical soils of subtropical China. Geoderma 146:40–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. IUSS Working Group WRB (2006) World reference base for soil resources 2006. World Soil Resources Reports 103, FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  10. IUSS Working Group WRB (2014) World reference base for soil resources 2014. World Soil Resources Reports 106, FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  11. Latrille C, Elsass F, van Oort F, Denaix L (2001) Physical speciation of trace metals in Fe-Mn concretions from a rendzic lithosol developed on Sinemurian limestones (France). Geoderma 100:127–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lindbo DL, Rhoton FE, Hudnall WH et al (2000) Fragipan degradation and nodule formation in Glossic Fragiudalfs of the Lower Mississippi River Valley. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:1713–1722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lindbo DL, Stolt MH, Vepraskas MJ (2010) Redoximorphic features. In: Stoops G, Marcelin V, Mees F (eds) Interpretation of micromorphological features of soils and regoliths. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 129–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Manceau A, Tamura N, Celestre RS et al (2003) Molecular-scale speciation of Zn and Ni in soil ferromanganese nodules from loess soils of the Mississippi basin. Environ Sci Technol 37:75–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nelson DW, Sommers LE (1996) Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Sparks DL et al. (eds) Methods of soil analysis. Part 3. Chemical methods. SSSA Book Series, vol 5. SSSA and ASA, Madison, pp 961–1010Google Scholar
  16. Nikorych V, Szymański W, Polchyna S, Skiba M (2014) Genesis and evolution of the fragipan in Albeluvisols in the Precarpathians in Ukraine. Catena 119:154–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Palumbo B, Bellanca A, Neri R, Roe MJ (2001) Trace metal partitioning in Fe–Mn nodules from Sicilian soils, Italy. Chem Geol 173:257–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Quénard L, Samouëlian A, Laroche B, Cornu S (2011) Lessivage as a major process of soil formation: a revisition of existing data. Geoderma 167–168:135–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Schwertmann U, Fanning DS (1976) Iron-manganese concretions in hydrosequences of soils in loess in Bavaria. Soil Sci Soc Am J 40:731–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sipos P, Németh T, May Z, Szalai Z (2011) Accumulation of trace elements in Fe-rich nodules in a neutral-slightly alkaline floodplain soil. Carpathian J Earth Environ Sci 6(1):13–22Google Scholar
  21. Stoops G (2003) Guidelines for analysis and description of soil and regolith thin sections. SSSA, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  22. Suarez DL, Langmuir D (1976) Heavy metals in a Pennsylvania soil. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 40:589–598Google Scholar
  23. Szendrei G, Kovács-Pálffy P, Földvari M, Gál-Sólymos K (2012) Mineralogical study of ferruginous and manganiferous nodules separated from characteristic profiles of hydromorphic soils in Hungary. Carpathian J Earth Environ Sci 7(1):59–70Google Scholar
  24. Szymański W, Skiba M (2013) Distribution, morphology and chemical composition of Fe–Mn nodules in Albeluvisols of the Carpathian Foothills, Poland. Pedosphere 23(4):445–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tan WF, Liu F, Li YH et al (2006) Elemental composition and geochemical characteristics of iron-manganese nodules in main soils of China. Pedosphere 16:72–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Timofeeva YO, Golov VI (2010) Accumulation of microelements in iron nodules in concretions in soils: a review. Eurasian Soil Sci 43(4):434–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Vepraskas MJ (2001) Morphological features of seasonally reduced soils. In: Richardson JL, Vepraskas MJ (eds) Wetland soils: genesis, hydrology, landscapes and classification. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, pp 163–182Google Scholar
  28. Vepraskas MJ (2004) Redoximorphic features for identifying aquic conditions. Technical Bulletin 301, North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, RaleighGoogle Scholar
  29. Vepraskas MJ, Richardson JL, Tandarich JP (2006) Dynamics of redoximorphic feature formation under controlled ponding in a created riverine wetland. Wetlands 26:486–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zaidelman FR, Nikiforova AS (2001) Genesis and diagnostic meaning of soil neoformations of forest and forest-steppe zones. Moscow University Press (Russian)Google Scholar
  31. Zaidelman FR, Nikiforova AS (2010) Ferromanganese concretionary neoformations: a review. Eura Soil Sci 43:248–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zhang M, Karathanasis AD (1997) Characterization of iron-manganese concretions in Kentucky Alfisols with perched water tables. Clays Clay Miner 45:428–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Volodymyr Nikorych
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wojciech Szymański
    • 2
  • Michał Skiba
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Soil ScienceYuri Fedkovich Chernivtsi National UniversityChernivtsiUkraine
  2. 2.Department of Pedology and Soil Geography, Institute of Geography and Spatial ManagementJagiellonian UniversityKrakówPoland
  3. 3.Department of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, Institute of Geological SciencesJagiellonian UniversityKrakówPoland

Personalised recommendations