Production of Biodiesel Using Spherical Millimetric Catalyst
This chapter demonstrates the use of spherical millimetric gamma alumina (γ-Al2O3) particle derived from oil drop granulation process, supported by potassium iodide (KI), potassium fluoride (KF), and sodium nitrate (NaNO3) catalysts for the production of biodiesel from palm oil at 60 °C in batch process. The catalysts were prepared at different loading contents, and the effects of these catalysts on the transesterification reaction were evaluated in terms of the FAMEs yield. The characteristics of the synthesized catalysts, such as the structural, textural, and base properties were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, and CO2-temperature-programmed reduction (TPD) techniques, respectively. The relationship between the basicity of the catalyst and their catalytic activity in the transesterification of palm oil was also discussed. Finally, the reusability of the single catalyst was determined and the leachate of catalyst into the reaction product was verified by X-ray fluorescence (XRF).
KeywordsBasic Site Catalyst Loading Transesterification Reaction Desorption Peak Potassium Iodide
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