Building Family Relationships from a Distance: Supporting Connections with Babies and Toddlers Using Video and Video Chat
Today, a deployed father can still interact and even play with his infant at home. In fact, families report using video chat services like Skype or FaceTime to help their children develop and maintain relationships with remote grandparents and with parents who are separated from them by work), divorce, immigration, or military deployment). This chapter highlights studies that have incorporated media in order to facilitate remote family relationships between babies and their relatives. First, the chapter describes video interventions like the Just Beginning Program and United Through Reading, programs that use videos to support relationships between babies and their incarcerated or deployed parents. Then it explores the challenges and opportunities of video chat in supporting the developmental needs of babies and toddlers during remote communication. The implications of video technology to support remote family relationships with babies are discussed.
KeywordsVideo chat Media co-use Communication Infant Toddler Developmental constraints Joint visual attention Family Parent–child interactions Grandparents Utilization of media resources At risk populations
The authors would like to acknowledge all those who contributed to the collection of video chat observations, with special thanks to Rachel Cohen for her extraordinary commitment to the project, and to Drs. Yulia Chentsova-Dutton, W. Gerrod Parrott, and Steven Holochwost for their collaboration. We would especially like to thank all the families who welcomed us into their homes for the study. We would also like to acknowledge Carole Shuaffer and Benjamin Richeda for their contributions to the Just Beginning program.
- Ainsworth, M., & Wittig, B. A. (1969). Attachment and exploratory behavior of one year-olds in a strange situation. In B. M. Foss (Ed.), Determinants of infant behaviour, IV (pp. 111–136). London: Methuen.Google Scholar
- Ames, M. G., Go, J., Kaye, J. J., & Spasojevic, M. (2010). Making love in the network closet: the benefits and work of family videochat. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work.Google Scholar
- Anderson, D. R., & Hanson, K. G. (2016). Screen media and parent–child interactions. In R. Barr & D. N. Linebarger (Eds.), Media exposure during infancy and early childhood: The effects of content and context on learning and development. New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-45102-2_11.Google Scholar
- Ballagas, R., Kaye, J. J., Ames, M., Go, J., & Raffle, H. (2009). Family communication: Phone conversations with children. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children.Google Scholar
- Blue Star Families. (2010). 2010 military families lifestyle survey: A comprehensive report. Retrieved from: http://bluestarfam.s3.amazonaws.com/42/af/8/569/2010surveyfindings.pdf.
- Bornstein, M. H., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (2001). Mother-infant interaction. In G. B. A. Fogel (Ed.), Blackwell handbook of infant development (pp. 269–295). Malden: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
- Cassidy, J., & Shaver, P. R. (2008). Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
- Condon, W. S. (1982). Cultural microrhythms. In M. Davis (Ed.), Inter- action rhythms: Periodicity in communicative behavior (pp. 53–76). New York: Human Sciences Press.Google Scholar
- Dunham, P. J., & Dunham, F. (1995). Optimal social structures and adaptive infant development. In C. Moore & P. J. Dunham (Eds.), Joint attention: Its origins and role in development (pp. 159–188). Hillsdale: Laurence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Fogel, A., Diamond, G., Langhorst, B., & Demos, V. (1982). Affective and cognitive aspects of the 2-month-old’s participation in face-to-face interaction with the mother. In E. Tronick (Ed.), Social interchange in infancy: Affect, cognition, and communication (pp. 37–57). Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
- Gergely, G., & Watson, J. S. (1999). Early socio-emotional development: Contingency perception and the social-biofeedback model. Early Social Cognition: Understanding Others in the First Months of Life, 60, 101–136.Google Scholar
- Guernsey, L. (2012). Screen time: How electronic media-from baby videos to educational software-affects your young child. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Guernsey, L. (2016). Who’s by their side? Questions of context deepen the research on children and media: Commentary on chapter 1. In R. Barr & D. N. Linebarger (Eds.), Media exposure during infancy and early childhood: The effects of content and context on learning and development. New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-45102-2_2.Google Scholar
- Hipp, D., Gerhardstein, P., Zimmermann, L., Moser, A., Taylor, G., & Barr, R. (2016). The dimensional divide: Learning from TV and touchscreens during early childhood. In R. Barr & D. N. Linebarger (Eds.), Media exposure during infancy and early childhood: The effects of content and context on learning and development. New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-45102-2_3.Google Scholar
- Kondrad, R. L., Soska, K. C., Keen, R., & DeLoache, J. S. (submitted for publication). Very young children show poor recognition of a person previously encountered in a video chat.Google Scholar
- Long, J., & Ferrie, J. (2003). Labour mobility. In The Oxford encyclopaedia of economic history. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved January 28, 2008.Google Scholar
- Madianou, M., & Miller, D. (2012). Migration and new media: Transnational families and polymedia. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- McClure, E. R., Chentsova‐Dutton, Y. E., Barr, R. F., Holochwost, S., & Parrott, W. G. (2015). “FaceTime doesn’t count”: Video chat as an exception to media restrictions for infants and toddlers. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 6, 1–6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcci.2016.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McClure, E. R., Chentsova‐Dutton, Y. E., Holochwost, S., & Parrott, W. G., & Barr, R. F. (in revision). Look at that! Skype and joint visual attention development among babies and toddlers.Google Scholar
- National Resource Center on Children and Families of the Incarcerated. (2007). Retrieved May 07, 2007, from http://www.fcnetwork.org/cpl/cplindex.html.
- Pew Research Center. (2008). Who moves? Who stays put? Where’s home? Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2010/10/Moversand-Stayers.pdf.
- Pew Research Center (2010). The Return of the Multi-Generational Family Household. Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2010/10/752-multi-generational-families.pdf.
- Piotrowski, J. T. (2016). The parental media mediation context of young children’s media use. In R. Barr & D. N. Linebarger (Eds.), Media exposure during infancy and early childhood: The effects of content and context on learning and development. New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-45102-2_13.Google Scholar
- Richeda, B., Smith, K., Perkins, E., Simmons, S., Cowan, P., Cowan, C., et al. (2015). Baby Elmo leads dads back to the nursery: How a relationship-based intervention for fathers enhances father and child outcomes. Zero to Three, 35, 25–35.Google Scholar
- Rideout, V. (2013). Zero to eight: Children’s media use in America 2013. San Francisco, CA: Common Sense Media.Google Scholar
- Roberts, D., Duckworth, T., Moore, C., Wolff, R., & O'Hare, J. (2009). Comparing the end to end latency of an immersive collaborative environment and a video conference. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2009 13th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications.Google Scholar
- Rochat, P., & Striano, T. (1999). Social-cognitive development in the first year. In P. Rochat (Ed.), Early social cognition: Understanding others in the first months of life (pp. 3–34). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Stack, D. M. (2001). The salience of touch and physical contact during infancy: Unraveling some of the mysteries of the somesthetic sense. In G. Bremner & A. Fogel (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of infant development (pp. 351–378). Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Tomlin, A., Pickholtz, N., Green, A., & Rumble, P. (2012). Parenting from prison: Staying connected while apart. Zero to Three, 32(5), 18–22.Google Scholar
- Truglio, R. T., & Kotler, J. (2016). Smarter, stronger, kinder—developing effective media-based tools for at-risk populations: Commentary on chapter 15. In R. Barr & D. N. Linebarger (Eds.), Media exposure during infancy and early childhood: The effects of content and context on learning and development. New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-45102-2_16.Google Scholar
- United Through Reading. (2014). A year in review.Google Scholar
- Xu, Y., Yu, C., Li, J., & Liu, Y. (2012). Video telephony for end-consumers: Measurement study of Google+, iChat, and Skype. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Conference on Internet Measurement Conference.Google Scholar
- Yarosh, S., & Abowd, G. D. (2011). Mediated parent-child contact in work-separated families. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems.Google Scholar
- Yeary, J., Zoll, S., & Reschke, K. (2012). When a parent is away: Promoting strong parent-child connections during parental absence. Zero to Three, 32(5), 5–10.Google Scholar
- Zosh, J. M., Lytle, S. R., Golinkoff, R. M., & Hirsh-Pasek, K. (2016). Putting the education back in educational apps: How content and context interact to promote learning. In R. Barr & D. N. Linebarger (Eds.), Media exposure during infancy and early childhood: The effects of content and context on learning and development. New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-45102-2_17.Google Scholar