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Enterohemorrhagic (Shiga Toxin-Producing) Escherichia coli

  • Marta RivasEmail author
  • Isabel Chinen
  • Beatriz E. C. Guth
Chapter

Summary

Enterohemorrhagic (Shiga toxin-producing) Escherichia coli (EHEC/STEC) is a zoonotic food- and waterborne pathogen that can cause human infections ranging from asymptomatic carriage or mild diarrhea to hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The isolates belong to a large number of O:H serotypes, and O157:H7 is the most prevalent serotype associated with large outbreaks and sporadic cases of HC and HUS in many countries. Advances on the knowledge of microbial pathogenesis, pathophysiology of the associated diseases, epidemiology, and risk factors have contributed to the development of several strategies trying to prevent food and environment contamination, and consequently transmission to humans. However, prevention of EHEC (STEC) infection has been difficult because of the broad spectrum of contaminated sources and the limited effectiveness of the different interventions used. The availability of effective vaccines to reduce carriage in livestock as well as for preventing human disease is a pending challenge. Specific targeted therapies against this pathogen group are another area of concern. A new risk scenario has emerged in the last decades due to the bacterial evolution that gave rise to the emergence of hypervirulent O157 clones with a worldwide distribution and other EHEC (STEC) strains with unusual combinations of pathogenic features, such as the O104:H4 strain. Because of the severity and the long-term sequelae of EHEC (STEC)-associated illnesses, they have a high social and economic cost for both the affected families and the health system. Therefore, all efforts should be directed to reduce the burden of these diseases.

Keywords

EHEC/STEC Pathogenesis Prevention and treatment Emergent clones Surveillance 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The data reported here is a summary of the efforts of many individuals and working groups in Latin America. Special thanks to E. Damiani, D. Montiveros (INLASA, Bolivia); V. Dias Gonçalves, M. Lima Festivo, D. Rodriguez (Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil); LF dos Santos, C. Camargo (Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Brazil); H. Bolaños, F. Duarte (INCIENSA, Costa Rica); S. Ureña (COOPESALUD, Costa Rica); V. Soto (SENASA, Costa Rica); N. Weiler Gustafson, V. Orrego (INS, Paraguay); ML. Zamudio (INS, Perú); F. Schelotto, G. Varela (Instituto de Higiene, Uruguay).

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Rivas
    • 1
    Email author
  • Isabel Chinen
    • 1
  • Beatriz E. C. Guth
    • 2
  1. 1.Servicio Fisiopatogenia, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas—ANLIS “Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán”Buenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and ParasitologyUniversidade Federal de São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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