Skip to main content

Automated Induction of General Grammars for Design

Abstract

Grammars are useful for representing systems of design patterns, however formulating good grammars is not straightforward in many contexts due to challenges of representation and scope. This challenge has been identified as one of the 3 goals for computerized use of shape grammars: grammar inference. This work introduces a highly flexible mechanism for inducing viable general grammars from a computational representation of a designed context. This mechanism is evaluated with several common types of devised media of increasing complexity based on dimensionality: 1D (e.g., text), 2D (e.g., PCB layout, building plans), many dimensional (which in abstract can generally be used to represent product, system, platform or service designs), and, against a set of grammar properties necessary for a grammar acquisition method to be useful: accuracy, variability, repeatability and conciseness. This work shows complete enumeration over possible grammars in the 1D case and a continuum of approaches for higher dimension data sets that are demonstrative of grammars in design .

Keywords

  • Graph Grammar
  • General Grammar
  • Grammar Rule
  • Grammar Property
  • Shape Grammar

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-44989-0_15
  • Chapter length: 12 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   349.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-44989-0
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   449.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   449.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  • Ball JA (1978) Algorithms for RPN calculators, 1st edn. Wiley, Cambridge. ISBN 0-471-03070-8

    Google Scholar 

  • Benrós D, Eloy S, Duarte JP (2015) Re-inventing ceramic tiles: using shape grammars as a generative method and the impact on design methodology. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference CAAD Futures, pp 467–480

    Google Scholar 

  • Davies M (2008) The corpus of contemporary American English: 450 million words, 1990–present. http://corpus.byu.edu/coca/

  • Ding Y, Martha P (2005) Machine translation using probabilistic synchronous dependency insertion grammars. In: Proceedings of the 43rd annual meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics. Association for Computational Linguistics

    Google Scholar 

  • Ehrig H, Michael P, Hans JS (1973) Graph-grammars: an algebraic approach. In: IEEE conference record of 14th annual symposium on switching and automata theory, 1973. SWAT’08. IEEE

    Google Scholar 

  • Evans TG (1971) Grammatical inference techniques in pattern analysis. Softw Eng 2:183–202

    Google Scholar 

  • Gips J, Stiny G (1972) Shape grammars and the generative specification of painting and sculpture. In: Freiman CV (ed) Information processing, vol 71. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 1460–1465

    Google Scholar 

  • Gips J (1999) Computer implementation of shape grammars. In: NSF/MIT workshop on shape computation, vol 55

    Google Scholar 

  • Königseder C, Kristina S (2015) A method for visualizing the relations between grammar rules, performance objectives and search space exploration in grammar-based computational design synthesis. In: ASME 2015 international design engineering technical conferences and computers and information in engineering conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers

    Google Scholar 

  • NetworkX (2015) networks.org

    Google Scholar 

  • Orsborn S, Cagan J, Boatwright P (2008) A methodology for creating a statistically derived shape grammar composed of non-obvious shape chunks. Res Eng Des 18(4):163–180

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Slisenko AO (1982) Context-free grammars as a tool for describing polynomial-time subclass of hard problems. Inf Process Lett 14(2):52–56

    Google Scholar 

  • Stiny G (1980) Introduction to shape and shape grammars. Environ Plann B 7:343–351

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stiny G, Mitchell WJ (1978) The Palladian grammar. Environ Plann B 5:5–18

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stolcke A, Omohundro S (1994) Inducing probabilistic grammars by Bayesian model merging. Grammatical inference and applications. Springer, Berlin, pp 106–118

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Suh NP (1990) The principles of design. New York: Oxford University Press. pp 147–188

    Google Scholar 

  • Talton J et al (2012) Learning design patterns with bayesian grammar induction. In: Proceedings of the 25th annual ACM symposium on user interface software and technology. ACM

    Google Scholar 

  • Yue K, Krishnamurti R (2013) Tractable shape grammars. Environ Plan 40(4):576–594

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jonathan Cagan .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this paper

Cite this paper

Whiting, M., Cagan, J., LeDuc, P. (2017). Automated Induction of General Grammars for Design. In: Gero, J. (eds) Design Computing and Cognition '16. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44989-0_15

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44989-0_15

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-44988-3

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-44989-0

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)