Skeuomorphic Reassurance: Personhood and Dementia

  • David Kreps
  • Oliver K. Burmeister
  • Jessica Blaynee
Conference paper
Part of the IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology book series (IFIPAICT, volume 474)

Abstract

User interface design needs to be revisited for people with dementia. This paper introduces ‘skeuomorphic reassurance’ as a guiding principle for human interfaces in technological design, particularly for older people and people with dementia (PwD). Skeuomorphs exhibit decorative design elements reminiscent of ‘parent’ objects that incorporated such design elements because they were structurally integral.

The philosophy of personhood is discussed in the context of dementia, concluding that the subjective character of conscious mental processes is an irreducible feature of reality, and the persistence of personhood in PwD supports this assertion.

Assistive technologies that aid carers, as well as PwD, need to ensure that skeuomorphic reassurance is incorporated in their design, not least because older people and PwD need recognisable interfaces today, but because the problems today’s over-65s have with digital technologies may not go away, but re-present themselves generation after generation, unless skeuomorphic reassurance is built into their design.

Keywords

Person centred care Family centred care Applied ethics Personhood Dementia Digital inclusion 

References

  1. 1.
    Alzheimer Europe Report: The ethical issues linked to the use of assistive technology in dementia care (2010)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alzheimer’s Society: What is Dementia? (2016). https://www.alzheimers.org.uk/site/scripts/documents.php?categoryID=200360
  3. 3.
    Anderson, S., Bohman, P.R., Burmeister, O.K., Sampson-Wild, G.: User needs and e-Government accessibility: the future impact of WCAG 2.0. 8th ERCIM 2004. LNCS, vol. 3196, pp. 289–304. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ballenger, J.F.: The biomedical deconstruction of senility and the persistent stigmatization of old age in the United States. In: Leibing, A., Cohen, L. (eds.) Thinking About Dementia: Culture, Loss, and the Anthropology of Senility, pp. 106–120. Rutgers University Press, New Jersey (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beer, S.: Cybernetics and Management. English Universities Press, London (1959)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Begum, M., Huq, R., Wang, R., Mihailidis, A.: Collaboration of an assistive robot and older adults with dementia. Gerontechnology 13(4), 405–419 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bergson, H.: The Creative Mind tr. Mabelle L. Andison, Philosophical Library, New York (1946)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bernoth, M., Dietsch, E., Burmeister, O.K., Schwartz, M.: Information management in aged care: cases of confidentiality and elder abuse. J. Bus. Ethics 122, 453–460 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Botkin, D.: Discordant Harmonies. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1992)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brownlee, J.: The Most Hated Design Trend is Back. Fast Company (2014). http://www.fastcodesign.com/3036347/wearables-week/the-most-hated-design-trend-is-back
  11. 11.
    Brynjolfsson, E., McAfee, A.: The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies. WW Norton & Company, New York (2014)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Burmeister, O.K., Islam, M.Z., Dayhew, M., Crichton, M.: Enhancing client welfare through better communication of private mental health data between rural service providers. Australas. J. Inf. Syst. 19, 1–14 (2015)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Burmeister, O.K.: Websites for seniors: cognitive accessibility. Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Soc. 8(2), 99–113 (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Burmeister, O.K.: What seniors value about online community. J. Commun. Inf. 8(1) (2012). http://ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/545
  15. 15.
    Burmeister, O.K.: HCI professionalism: ethical concerns in usability engineering. Conf. Res. Pract. Inf. Technol. 1, 11–17 (2001)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Churchland, P.M.: Eliminative materialism and the propositional attitudes. J. Philos. 78(2), 67–90 (1981)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Clarkson, P.J., Coleman, R., Keates, S., Lebbon, C.: Inclusive Design: Design for the Whole Population. Springer Science & Business Media, Heidelberg (2013)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Descartes, R: Meditations on First Philosophy. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1641, 1996)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Farr, J.: ‘So vile and miserable an estate’ the problem of slavery in locke’s political thought. Polit. Theor. 14(2), 263–289 (2007)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fazio, S., Mitchell, D.B.: Persistence of self in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease evidence from language and visual recognition. Dementia 8(1), 39–59 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Goodwin, B.: How the Leopard Changed Its Spots. Charles Scribner & Sons, New York (1994)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hunter, P.V., Hadjistavropoulos, T., Smythe, W.E., Malloy, D.C., Kaasalainen, S., Williams, J.: The personhood in dementia questionnaire (PDQ): establishing an association between beliefs about personhood and health providers’ approaches to person-centred care. J. Aging Stud. 27(3), 276–287 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jenkins, D., Price, B.: Dementia and personhood: a focus for care? J. Adv. Nurs. 24(1), 84–90 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kant, I.: Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals Trans by Thomas Kingsmill Abbott. Longmans, Green and co., London (1785, 1895). www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/5682
  25. 25.
    Kaufmann, E.G., Engel, S.A.: Dementia and well-being: a conceptual framework based on Tom Kitwood’s model of needs. Dementia 15(4), 774–788 (2014). doi:10.1177/1471301214539690 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kauffman, S.: At Home in the Universe. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1995)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kitwood, T.: Dementia Reconsidered: the Person Comes First (Rethinking Ageing). Open University Press, Maidenhead (1997)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kitwood, T.: The concept of personhood and its relevance for a new culture of dementia care. In: Care-Giving in Dementia, vol. 2, p. 2 (2013)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kontos, P.C.: Embodied selfhood in Alzheimer’s disease rethinking person-centred care. Dementia 4(4), 553–570 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kreps, D.: Social networking and transnational capitalism. tripleC – Cogn. Commun. Co-oper. 9(2), 689–701 (2011)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kreps, D.: Bergson, Complexity and Creative Emergence. Palgrave, London (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Locke, J.: Second Treatise of Government (1690, 2005). www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/7370
  33. 33.
    Macpherson, C.B.: Locke on capitalist appropriation. W. Polit. Q. 4(4), 550–556 (1951)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Macpherson, C.B.: The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism: Hobbes to Locke. Clarendon Press, Oxford (1962, 2011)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Matthews, F.: For Love of Matter: A Contemporary Panpsychism. State University of New York Press, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Maturana, H., Varela, F.: The Tree of Knowledge. Shambhala Press, Michigan (1987)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    McCormack, B., Roberts, T., Meyer, J., Morgan, D., Boscart, V.: Appreciating the ‘person’ in long-term care. Int. J. Older People Nurs. 7(4), 284–294 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nagel, T.: The View from Nowhere. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1986)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nussbaum, M.C.: The future of feminist liberalism. In: The American Philosophical Association Centennial Series, pp. 679–708 (2013)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    O’Connor, D., Phinney, A., Smith, A., Small, J., Purves, B., Perry, J., Drance, E., Donnelly, M., Chaudhury, H., Beattie, L.: Personhood in dementia care: developing a research agenda for broadening the vision. Dementia 6(1), 121–142 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Okin, S.M.: Reason and feeling in thinking about justice. Ethics 99(2), 229–249 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Okin, S.M.: Justice, Gender, Family. Basic Books, New York (1989)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pakrasi, S., Burmeister, O.K., McCallum, T.J., Coppola, J.F., Loeb, G.: Ethical telehealth design for users with dementia. Gerontechnology 13(4), 383–387 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Palmer, J.L.: Preserving personhood of individuals with advanced dementia: lessons from family caregivers. Geriatr. Nurs. 34, 224–229 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Parfit, D.: Personal Identity. The Philosophical Review LXXX, pp. 3–27 (1971)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pask, G.: Conversation, Cognition and Learning. Elsevier, New York (1975)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    von Foerster, H.: Cybernetics of Cybernetics. Urbana, Illinois (1974)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pateman, C.: The Sexual Contract. Polity Press, Boston (1988)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rawls, J.: A Theory of Justice. Harvard University Press, Harvard (1971, 1999)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rousseau, J.: The Social Contract. Wordsworth Editions, London (1762, 1998)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sixsmith, A., Gutman, G.: Technologies for Active Aging, vol. 9. Springer Science & Business Media, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Skrbina, D.: Panpsychism in the West. MIT Press, Cambridge (2007)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Smedbye, K.L., Kirkevold, M.: The influence of relationships on personhood in dementia care: a qualitative, hermeneutic study. BMC Nurs. 12(29), 1–13 (2013)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Steffen, W., Broadgate, W., Deutsch, L., Gaffney, O., Ludwig, C.: The trajectory of the anthropocene: the great acceleration. Anthropocene Rev. 1–18 (2015). Published online 16/1/15Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lewis, L., Maslin, M.: Defining the anthropocene. Nature 519, 171–180 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Stengers, I.: Thinking with Whitehead Trans. by Michael Chase. Harvard University Press, Harvard (2011)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tappen, R.M., Williams, C., Fishman, S., Touhy, T.: Persistence of self in advanced Alzheimer’s disease. Image J. Nurs. Sch. 31(2), 121 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Touhy, T.A.: Dementia, personhood, and nursing: learning from a nursing situation. Nurs. Sci. Q. 17(1), 43–49 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tschaepe, M.: A humanist ethic of Ubuntu: understanding moral obligation and community. Essays. Philos. Hum. 21(2), 47–61 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Teipel, S., Babiloni, C., Hoey, J., Kaye, J., Kirste, T., Burmeister, O.K.: Information and communication technology solutions for outdoor navigation in dementia. Alzheimer’s Dement. 12, 1–13 (2016). S1552-5260(15) 03028-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    United Nations: Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division World Population Ageing ST/ESA/SER.A/348 (2013)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    van Wynsberghe, A.: Designing robots for care: care centered value-sensitive design. Sci. Eng. Ethics 19(2), 407–433 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    van Wynsberghe, A.: Healthcare Robots: Ethics, Design and Implementation. Ashgate Publishing, Farnham (2015)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Whitehead, A.N.: The Concept of Nature. Cosimo Classics, New York (1920, 2007)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Whitehead, A.N.: Process and Reality (Corrected Edition). Free Press, New York (1978)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wiener, N.: Cybernetics: or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. Wiley, Boston (1946)Google Scholar
  67. 67.

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Kreps
    • 1
  • Oliver K. Burmeister
    • 2
  • Jessica Blaynee
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Digital BusinessUniversity of SalfordSalfordUK
  2. 2.School of Computing and MathematicsCharles Sturt UniversityBathurstAustralia

Personalised recommendations