Clinical Management of Articular Cartilage Lesions

  • Carlos A. VilelaEmail author
  • Cristina Correia
  • Joaquim Miguel Oliveira
  • Rui Amandi Sousa
  • Rui Luís Reis
  • João Espregueira-Mendes
Part of the Studies in Mechanobiology, Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials book series (SMTEB, volume 21)


Articular cartilage is extremely sensitive to traumatic lesions and natural repair is very limited. When regeneration occur the tissue found in the lesion site is mostly fibrocartilage with poor mechanical properties, rendering a poor long-term clinical outcome. Cartilage lesion is a common problem with an impressive clinical and economic impact. With a difficult diagnosis in an initial disease stage, the cartilage lesion can progress to osteoarthritis and, therefore, a prompt diagnosis and treatment is required. Clinical management of cartilage lesions is a very demanding issue and the treatment is dependent of the extension, depth, location, chronicity of the lesions, patient’s conditions and patients’ expectations as well as associated lesions. In the present chapter, we present the clinical findings and diagnosis methodology to identify a cartilage lesion in an early stage. Finally, we discuss the indications, contra-indications, advantages, disadvantages and treatment decision-making as well as the outcomes of the available therapeutic approaches.


Cartilage Cartilage repair Microfracture Mosaicplasty ACI MACI MASI Tissue engineering 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos A. Vilela
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Cristina Correia
    • 7
  • Joaquim Miguel Oliveira
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rui Amandi Sousa
    • 7
  • Rui Luís Reis
    • 1
    • 2
    • 7
  • João Espregueira-Mendes
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.3B’s Research Group, European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative MedicineUniversity of MinhoGuimarãesPortugal
  2. 2.ICVS/3B’s–PT Government Associate LaboratoryBraga, GuimarãesPortugal
  3. 3.Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health SciencesUniversity of MinhoBragaPortugal
  4. 4.Orthopedic DepartmentCentro Hospitalar do Alto AveGuimarãesPortugal
  5. 5.Clínica do Dragão, Espregueira-Mendes Sports Centre, FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence and Dom Henrique Research CenterFC Porto StadiumPortoPortugal
  6. 6.Dom Henrique Research CentrePortoPortugal
  7. 7.Stemmatters, Biotecnologia e Medicina Regenerativa SAGuimarãesPortugal

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