Ageing: Lessons from C. elegans pp 331-354

Part of the Healthy Ageing and Longevity book series (HAL)

Autophagy and Ageing

Chapter

Abstract

Autophagy is a conserved cellular recycling process that plays critical roles in development, disease, and ageing. During autophagy, cytosolic components are sequestered in double-membrane vesicles that ultimately fuse with lysosomes, where the cargo is degraded and recycled. Intriguingly, genetic and pharmacological experiments in C. elegans have shown that all of the longevity paradigms analysed to date, ranging from reduced insulin/IGF-1 signalling to spermidine supplementation, require autophagy genes for lifespan extension. Moreover, many of the long-lived animals show changes in steady-state levels of autophagy markers and/or display increased transcription of autophagy-related and lysosomal genes via conserved transcription factors such as HLH-30/TFEB. These observations are consistent with the notion that increased autophagy is critical for lifespan extension in C. elegans. Similar genetic links have been reported in other organisms, including flies and mice, where overexpression of certain autophagy-related genes is sufficient to extend lifespan. Although clearance of lipids (lipophagy) and mitochondria (mitophagy) have been proposed as selective types of autophagy with relevance to C. elegans ageing, it is still unclear how long-lived animals may induce autophagy to improve their overall healthspan, or how autophagy is regulated in different tissues during normal ageing. Understanding these mechanisms will be critical for targeting autophagy in higher organisms. This chapter summarizes our current knowledge of the links between autophagy and ageing in C. elegans.

Keywords

Macroautophagy mTOR Atg8/LGG-1/2 Insulin/IGF-1 signalling Dietary restriction Germline removal Mitochondrial respiration Spermidine Resveratrol 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Program for Development, Aging and RegenerationSanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery InstituteLa JollaUSA

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