Skip to main content

Nutritional Strategies and Sex Hormone Interactions in Women

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Sex Hormones, Exercise and Women

Abstract

A number of nutrients, foods and supplements have the potential to augment health, exercise performance and/or recovery, particularly in women, due to fluctuation of sex hormones, or reductions thereof. Some of these for which significant amounts of research have provided evidence include:

CHO loading can overcome lower resting muscle glycogen in the follicular phase but an increase in total energy intake may be required.

Pre-exercise feeding and/or CHO ingestion can negate effects of the oestrogen-induced reduction in gluconeogenesis during endurance exercise.

Increased protein during recovery may help offset the increase in protein catabolism in the luteal phase.

Special attention to not overhydrate and replace sodium losses in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle may help reduce the increased risk of hyponatraemia that is due to differences in fluid and electrolyte handing and thirst in this phase.

Supplementing with dietary sources of antioxidants may be prudent in those with amenorrhoea or in menopause and, thus, low oestrogen, as oestrogen enhances antioxidant capacity. However, this may not fully compensate for lack of oestrogen.

Fish oil (omega-3 fatty acid source) may aid in inflammatory disorders such as dysmenorrhoea and those associated with menopause.

Vitamin D and calcium influence fertility, possibly dysmenorrhoea, as well as bone health; however, supplementation cannot fully compensate for lack of oestrogen.

Branched chain amino acid oxidation may be greater when oestrogen is low; this may have dietary implications for those with amenorrhoea or in menopause, particularly when training regularly and or on low energy diets.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 84.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 109.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Akova B, Surmen-Gur E, Gur H, Dirican M, Sarandol E, Kucukoglu S. Exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle performance in healthy women: role of vitamin E supplementation and endogenous oestradiol. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001;84(1-2):141–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Almond CS, Shin AY, Fortescue EB, Mannix RC, Wypij D, Binstadt BA, et al. Hyponatremia among runners in the Boston Marathon. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(15):1550–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ayres S, Baer J, Ravi Subbiah MT. Exercised-induced increase in lipid peroxidation parameters in amenorrheic female athletes. Fertil Steril. 1998;69(1):73–7. doi:10.1016/S0015-0282(97)00428-7. http://dx.doi.org.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Baer J, Taper L, Gwazdauskas F, Walberg J, Novascone M, Ritchey S, et al. Diet, hormonal, and metabolic factors affecting bone mineral density in adolescent amenorrheic and eumenorrheic female runners. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1992;32(1):51–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Baeza I, De Castro NM, Arranz L, Fdez-Tresguerres J, De la Fuente M. Ovariectomy causes immunosenescence and oxi-inflamm-ageing in peritoneal leukocytes of aged female mice similar to that in aged males. Biogerontology. 2011;12(3):227–38. doi:10.1007/s10522-010-9317-0. http://dx.doi.org.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bailey S, Zacher C, Mittleman K. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on carbohydrate supplementation during prolonged exercise to fatigue. J Appl Physiol. 2000;88:690–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Berger NJA, Campbell IT, Wlkerson DP, Jones AM. Influence of acute plasma volume expansion on VO2 kineitics, VO2peak, and performance during high-intensity cycle exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2006;101:707–14.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bisson DL, Dunster GD, O’Hare JP, Hampton D, Penney MD. Renal sodium retention does not occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in normal women. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1992;99:247–52.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Blakesmith SJ, Lyons-Wall PM, George C, Joannou GE, Petocz P, Samman S. Effects of supplementation with purified red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavones on plasma lipids and insulin resistance in healthy premenopausal women. Br J Nutr. 2003;89(4):467–74.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Broad E, Cox G. What is the optimal composition of an athlete’s diet? Eur J Sport Sci. 2008;8(2):57–65.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Burke L. Re-examining high-fat diets for sports performance: did we call the ‘nail in the coffin’ too soon? Sports Med. 2015;45 Suppl 1:S33–49.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Burke L, Hawley J, Schabort E, St Clair Gibson A, Mujika I, Noakes T. Carbohydrate loading failed to improve 100-km cycling performance in a placebo-controlled trial. J Appl Physiol. 2000;88:1284–90.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell S, Febbraio M. Effect of ovarian hormones on mitochondrial enzyme activity in fat oxidation pathway of skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001;281:E803–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell S, Febbraio M. Effect of ovarian hormones on GLUT4 expression and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002;282:E1139–46.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell S, Angus D, Febbraio M. Glucose kinetics and exercise performance during phases of the menstrual cycle: effect of glucose ingestion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001;281:E817–25.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell MJ, Woodside JV, Honour JW, Morton MS, Leathem AJ. Effect of red clover-derived isoflavone supplementation on insulin-like growth factor, lipid and antioxidant status in healthy female volunteers: a pilot study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58(1):173–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Casazza G, Jacobs K, Suh S-H, Miller B, Horning M, Brooks G. Menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptive effects on triglyceride mobilisation during exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2004;97:302–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cassidy A, Bingham S, Setchell KD. Biological effects of a diet of soy protein rich in isoflavones on the menstrual cycle of premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60(3):333–40.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cederroth CR, Nef S. Soy, phytoestrogens and metabolism: a review. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;304(1–2):30–42. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2009.02.027. http://dx.doi.org.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cermak N, van Loon L. The use of carbohydrates during exercise as an ergogenic aid. Sports Med. 2013;43:1139–55.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Charkoudian N, Johnson JM. Modification of active cutaneous vasodilation by oral contraceptive hormones. J Appl Physiol. 1997;83(6):2012–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Charkoudian N, Johnson JM. Reflex control of cutaneous vasoconstrictor system is reset by exogenous female reproductive hormones. J Appl Physiol. 1999;87(1):381–5.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Charkoudian N, Stachenfeld NS. Reproductive hormone influences on thermoregulation in women, Comprehensive Physiology. Hoboken: Wiley; 2011.

    Google Scholar 

  • Charkoudian N, Stephens DP, Pirkle KC, Kosiba WA, Johnson JM. Influence of female reproductive hormones on local thermal control of skin blood flow. J Appl Physiol. 1999;87(5):1719–23.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chung S-C, Goldfarb AH, Jamurtas AZ, Hegde SS, Lee J. Effect of exercise during the follicular and luteal phases on indices of oxidative stress in healthy women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(3):409–13.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cornelli U, Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Finco A. Analysis of oxidative stress during the menstrual cycle. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013;11:74. doi:10.1186/1477-7827-11-74. http://dx.doi.org.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Correia-Oliveira C, Bertuzzi R, Dal’Molin Kiss M, Lima-Silva A. Strategies of dietary carbohydrate manipulation and their effects of performance in cycling time trials. Sports Med. 2013;43:707–19.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • D’Eon T, Sharoff C, Chipkin S, Grow D, Ruby B, Braun B. Regulation of exercise carbohydrate metabolism by estrogen and progesterone in women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002;283:E1046–55.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Deutch B, Jørgensen EB, Hansen JC. Menstrual discomfort in Danish women reduced by dietary supplements of omega-3 PUFA and B 12 (fish oil or seal oil capsules). Nutr Res. 2000;20(5):621–31.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Devries M, Hamadeh M, Phillips S, Tarnopolsky M. Menstrual cycle phase and sex influence muscle glycogen utilization and glucose turnover during moderate-intensity endurance exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;291:R1120–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Drinkwater BL, Nilson K, Ott S, Chesnut CH. Bone mineral density after resumption of menses in amenorrheic athletes. JAMA. 1986;256(3):380–2.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Druyan A, Makranz C, Moran D, Yanovich R, Epstein Y, Heled Y. Heat tolerance in women: reconsidering the criteria. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2012;83(1):58–60. doi:10.3357/ASEM.3130.2012.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Eijsvogels TMH, Scholten RR, van Duijnhoven NTL, Thijssen DHJ, Hopman MTE. Sex difference in fluid balance responses during prolonged exercise. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013;23(2):198–206. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01371.x.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Foran SE, Flood JG, Lewandrowski KB. Measurement of mercury levels in concentrated over-the-counter fish oil preparations: is fish oil healthier than fish? Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2003;127(12):1603–5.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fortney SM, Wenger CB, Bove JR, Nadel ER. Effect of hyperosmolality on control of blood flow and sweating. J Appl Physiol. 1984;57:1688–95.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Frey MAB, Riddle J, Charles JB, Bungo MW. Blood and urine responses to ingesting fluids of various salt and glucose-concentrations. J Clin Pharmacol. 1991;31(10):880–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gagnon D, Kenny GP. Sex modulates whole-body sudomotor thermosensitivity during exercise. J Physiol. 2011;589(24):6205–17. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2011.219220.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Gagnon D, Kenny GP. Sex differences in thermoeffector responses during exercise at fixed requirements for heat loss. J Appl Physiol. 2012;113(5):746–57. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00637.2012.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gagnon D, Jay O, Lemire B, Kenny GP. Sex-related differences in evaporative heat loss: the importance of metabolic heat production. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008;104(5):821–9. doi:10.1007/s00421-008-0837-0.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Greenleaf JE, Looft-Wilson R, Wisherd JL, McKenzie MA, Jensen CD, Whittam JH. Pre-Exercise hypervolemia and cycle ergometer endurance in men. Biol Sport. 1997;14:103–14.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Greenleaf JE, Jackson CG, Geelen G, Keil LC, Hinghofer-Szalkay H, Whittam JH. Plasma volume expansion with oral fluids in hypohydrated men at rest and during exercise. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1998a;69(9):837–44.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Greenleaf JE, Looft-Wilson R, Wisherd JL, Jackson CG, Fung PP, Ertl AC, et al. Hypervolemia in men from fluid ingestion at rest and during exercise. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1998b;69(4):374–86.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hackney, AC. Effects of the menstrual cycle on resting muscle glycogen content. Horm Metab Res. 1990;22:647.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hamadeh M, Devries M, Tarnopolsky M. Estrogen supplementation reduces whole body leucine and carbohydrate oxidation and increases lipid oxidation in men during endurance exercise. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(6):3592–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hansen P, McCarthy T, Pasia E, Spina R, Gulve E. Effects of ovariectomy and exercise training on muscle GLUT-4 content and glucose metabolism in rats. J Appl Physiol. 1996;80(5):1605–11.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hashimoto H, Ishijima T, Hayashida H, Suzuki K, Higuchi M. Menstrual cycle phase and carbohydrate ingestion alter immune response following endurance exercise and high intensity time trial performance test under hot conditions. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014;11:39.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hausswirth C, Le Meur Y. Physiological and nutritional aspects of post-exercise recovery: specific recommendations for female athletes. Sports Med. 2011;41(10):861–82. doi:10.2165/11593180-000000000-00000. http://dx.doi.org.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hawley J, Palmer G, Noakes T. Effects of 3 days of carbohydrate supplementation on muscle glycogen content and utilisation during a 1-h cycling performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1997;75:407–12.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hew-Butler T, Rosner MH, Fowkes-Godek S, Dugas JP, Hoffman MD, Lewis DP, et al. Statement of the third international exercise-associated hyponatremia consensus development conference, Carlsbad, California, 2015. Clin J Sport Med. 2015;25(4):303–20.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hightower JM, Moore D. Mercury levels in high-end consumers of fish. Environ Health Perspect. 2003;111(4):604.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Hiroshoren N, Tzoran I, Makrienko I, Edoute Y, Plawner MM, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Jacob G. Menstrual cycle effects on the neurohumoral and autonomic nervous systems regulating the cardiovascular system. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(4):1569–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Houghton BL, Holowatz LA, Minson CT. Influence of progestin bioactivity on cutaneous vascular responses to passive heating. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(1):45–51. discussion 2.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Houltham S, Rowlands D. A snapshot of nitrogen balance in endurance-trained women. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014;39:219–25.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Howatson G, van Someren K. The prevention and treatment of exercise-induced muscle damage. Sports Med. 2008;38(6):483–503.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ishunina TA, Swaab DF. Vasopressin and oxytocin neurons of the human supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus; size changes in relation to age and sex. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(12):4637–44.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • James A, Lorraine M, Cullen D, Goodman C, Dawson B, Palmer T, et al. Muscle glycogen supercompensation: absence of a gender-related difference. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001;85:533–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jeukendrup A. Nutrition for endurance sports: marathon, triathlon, and road cycling. J Sport Sci. 2011;29 Suppl 1:S91–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Joo MH, Maehata E, Adachi T, Ishida A, Murai F, Mesaki N. The relationship between exercise-induced oxidative stress and the menstrual cycle. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004;93(1-2):82–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jukic AM, Steiner AZ, Baird DD. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and ovarian reserve in premenopausal women. Menopause. 2015;22(3):312–6. doi:10.1097/GME.0000000000000312. http://dx.doi.org.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Kang AK, Duncan JA, Cattran DC, Floras JS, Lai V, Scholey JW, Miller JA. Effect of oral contraceptives on the renin angiotensin system and renal function. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;280:R807–13.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kawahata A. Sex differences in sweating. In: Ito S, Ogata H, Yoshimura H, editors. Essential problems in climatic physiology. Kyoto, Japan: Nankodo Publ; 1960.

    Google Scholar 

  • Keane K, Salicki R, Goodall S, Thomas K, Howatson G. Muscle damage response in female collegiate athletes after repeated sprint activity. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(10):2802–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kehrer JP. Free radicals as mediators of tissue injury and disease. Crit Rev Toxicol. 1993;23(1):21–48. doi:10.3109/10408449309104073.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Klapcinska B, Sadowska-Krepa E, Manowska B, Pilis W, Sobczak A, Danch A. Effects of a low carbohydrate diet and graded exercise during the follicular and luteal phases on the blood antioxidant status in healthy women. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002;87(4-5):373–80.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kobayashi R, Shimomura Y, Murakami T, Nakai N, Fujitsuka N, Otsuka M, et al. Gender difference in regulation of branched-chain amino acid catabolism. Biochem J. 1997;327(Pt 2):449–53.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Kolka MA, Stephenson LA. Effect of luteal phase elevation in core temperature on forearm blood flow during exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1997a;82(4):1079–83.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kolka MA, Stephenson LA. Resetting the thermoregulatory set-point by endogenous estradiol or progesterone in women. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997b;813:204–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kriengsinyos W, Wykes L, Goonewardene L, Ball R, Pencharz P. Phase of menstrual cycle affects lysine requirement in healthy women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287:E489–96.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kuipers H, Saris W, Brouns F, Keizer H, ten Bosch C. Glycogen synthesis during exercise and rest with carbohydrate feeding in males and females. Int J Sports Med. 1989;10 Suppl 1:S63–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kushi LH, Folsom AR, Prineas RJ, Mink PJ, Wu Y, Bostick RM. Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(18):1156–62. doi:10.1056/NEJM199605023341803.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lamont L, Lemon P, Bruot B. Menstrual cycle and exercise effects on protein catabolism. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1987;19(2):106–10.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lariviere F, Moussalli R, Garrel D. Increased leucine flux and leucine oxidation during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 1994;267:E422–8.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Latour M, Shinoda M, Lavoie J-M. Metabolic effects of physical training in ovariectomized and hyperestrogenic rats. J Appl Physiol. 2001;90:235–41.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lavoie J, Dionne N, Helie R, Brisson G. Menstrual cycle phase dissociation of blood glucose homeostasis during exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1987;62(3):1084–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mack GW, Nadel ER. Body fluid balance during heat stress in humans. Comprehensive Physiology: Wiley; 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maskarinec G, Williams AE, Inouye JS, Stanczyk FZ, Franke AA. A randomized isoflavone intervention among premenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11(2):195–201.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Massafra C, Buonocore G, Gioia D, Sargentini I. Changes in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme system during transdermal estradiol therapy for secondary amenorrhea. Gynecol Endocrinol. 1996;10(3):155–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Matute M, Kalkhoff R. Sex steroid influence on hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogen formation. Endocrinology. 1973;92:762–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Maughan RJ, Leiper JB, Shirreffs SM. Factors influencing the restoration of fluid and electrolyte balance after exercise in the heat. Br J Sports Med. 1997;31(3):175–82.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Maughan RJ, Shirreffs SM, Leiper JB. Errors in the estimation of hydration status from changes in body mass. J Sports Sci. 2007;25(7):797–804. doi:10.1080/02640410600875143.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McCarty MF. Vascular nitric oxide, sex hormone replacement, and fish oil may help to prevent Alzheimer’s disease by suppressing synthesis of acute-phase cytokines. Med Hypotheses. 1999;53(5):369–74.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McLay R, Thomson C, Williams S, Rehrer N. Carbohydrate loading and female endurance athletes: effects of menstrual-cycle phase. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2007;17(2):189–205.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mee JA, Gibson OR, Doust J, Maxwell NS. A comparison of males and females’ temporal patterning to short- and long-term heat acclimation. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015;25:250–8. doi:10.1111/sms.12417.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mei J, Yeung SS, Kung AW. High dietary phytoestrogen intake is associated with higher bone mineral density in postmenopausal but not premenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(11):5217–21.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mestre-Alfaro A, Ferrer MD, Sureda A, Tauler P, Martinez E, Bibiloni MM, et al. Phytoestrogens enhance antioxidant enzymes after swimming exercise and modulate sex hormone plasma levels in female swimmers. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011;111(9):2281–94. doi:10.1007/s00421-011-1862-y. http://dx.doi.org.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Michos C, Kiortsis DN, Evangelou A, Karkabounas S. Antioxidant protection during the menstrual cycle: the effects of estradiol on ascorbic-dehydroascorbic acid plasma levels and total antioxidant plasma status in eumenorrhoic women during the menstrual cycle. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(8):960–5.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Moran DS, Shapiro Y, Laor A, Izraeli S, Pandolf KB. Can gender differences during exercise-heat stress be assessed by the physiological strain index? Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 1999;276(6):R1798–804.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Moreira AC, Silva AM, Santos MS, Sardão VA. Phytoestrogens as alternative hormone replacement therapy in menopause: What is real, what is unknown. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014;143:61–71. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2014.01.016. http://dx.doi.org.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Morrow C, Naumburg EH. Dysmenorrhea. Prim Care. 2009;36(1):19–32.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nhan S, Anderson KE, Nagamani M, Grady JJ, Lu LJ. Effect of a soymilk supplement containing isoflavones on urinary F2 isoprostane levels in premenopausal women. Nutr Cancer. 2005;53(1):73–81.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nicklas B, Hackney AC, Sharp R. The menstrual cycle and exercise: performance, muscle glycogen, and substrate responses. Int J Sports Med. 1989;10:264–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Obayashi M, Shimomura Y, Nakai N, Jeoung NH, Nagasaki M, Murakami T, et al. Estrogen controls branched-chain amino acid catabolism in female rats. J Nutr. 2004;134(10):2628–33.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Oian P, Tollan A, Fadnes HO, Noddeland H, Maltau JM. Transcapillary fluid dynamics during the menstrual cycle. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1987;156(4):952–5.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • O’Keeffe K, Keith R, Wilson G, Blessing D. Dietary carbohydrate intake and endurance exercise performance of trained female cyclists. Nutr Res. 1989;9:819–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Oosthuyse T, Bosch A. The effect of the menstrual cycle on exercise metabolism. Implications for exercise performance in eumenorrhoeic women. Sports Med. 2010;40(3):207–27.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Patisaul HB, Jefferson W. The pros and cons of phytoestrogens. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2010;31(4):400–19. doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2010.03.003. doi:http://dx.doi.org.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Paul D, Mulroy S, Horner J, Jacobs K, Lamb D. Carbohydrate-loading during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle: effects on muscle glycogen and exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2001;11:430–41.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Peternelj T-T, Coombes JS. Antioxidant supplementation during exercise training. Sports Med. 2011;41(12):1043–69.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pitkin RM, Reynolds WA, Williams GA, Hargis GK. Calcium-regulating hormones during the menstrual cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1978;47(3):626–32.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rahbar N, Asgharzadeh N, Ghorbani R. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on intensity of primary dysmenorrhea. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2012;117(1):45–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rauch L, Rodger I, Wilson G, Belonje J, Dennis S, Noakes T, et al. The effects of carbohydrate loading on muscle glycogen content and cycling performance. Int J Sport Nutr. 1995;5:25–36.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rauch H, St Clair Gibson A, Lambert E, Noakes T. A signaling role for muscle glycogen in the regulation of pace during prolonged exercise. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39:34–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Rechichi C, Dawson B, Goodman C. Athletic performance and oral contraceptive. Int J Sport Physiol Perform. 2009;4:151–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reznik Dolins K, Boozer C, Stoler F, Bartels M, DeMeersman R, Contento I. Effect of variable carbohydrate intake on exercise performance in female endurance cyclists. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003;13:422–35.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rosner MH, Bennett B, Hew-Butler T, Hoffman MD. Exercise-associated hyponatremia. In: Simon EE, editor. Hyponatremia: evaluation and treatment. New York, NY: Springer New York; 2013. p. 175–92.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Rowlands D, Wadsworth D. Effect of high-protein feeding on performance and nitrogen balance in female cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(1):44–53.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Roy B, Luttmer K, Bosman M, Tarnopolsky M. The influence of post-exercise macronutrient intake on energy balance and protein metabolism in active females participating in endurance training. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2002;12:172–88.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Salazar FJ, Llinas MT. Role of nitric oxide in the control of sodium excretion. News Physiol Sci. 1996;11:62–7.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sar M, Stumpf W. Simultaneous localization of [3 H] estradiol and neurophysin I or arginine vasopressin in hypothalamic neurons demonstrated by a combined technique of dry-mount autoradiography and immunohistochemistry. Neurosci Lett. 1980;17(1):179–84.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sedlock D. The latest on carbohydrate loading: a practical approach. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2008;7(4):209–13.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sherman W, Costill D, Fink W, Miller J. The effect of exercise-diet manipulation on muscle glycogen and its subsequent utilisation during performance. Int J Sports Med. 1981;2:114–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shimomura Y, Obayashi M, Murakami T, Harris RA. Regulation of branched-chain amino acid catabolism: nutritional and hormonal regulation of activity and expression of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2001;4(5):419–23.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Simpson LO. The etiopathogenesis of premenstrual syndrome as a consequence of altered blood rheology: a new hypothesis. Med Hypotheses. 1988;25(4):189–95.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sims ST, Rehrer NJ, Bell ML, Cotter JD. Preexercise sodium loading aids fluid balance and endurance for women exercising in the heat. J Appl Physiol. 2007a;103(2):534–41. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01203.2006.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sims ST, van Vliet L, Cotter JD, Rehrer NJ. Sodium loading aids fluid balance and reduces physiological strain of trained men exercising in the heat. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007b;39(1):123–30. doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000241639.97972.4a.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sjödin B, Westing YH, Apple FS. Biochemical mechanisms for oxygen free radical formation during exercise. Sports Med. 1990;10(4):236–54.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stachenfeld NS. Hormonal changes during menopause and the impact on fluid regulation. Reprod Sci. 2014;21(5):555–61. doi:10.1177/1933719113518992.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stachenfeld NS, Keefe DL. Estrogen effects on osmotic regulation of AVP and fluid balance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002;283(4):E711–21.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stachenfeld NS, Dipietro L, Palter SF, Nadel ER. Estrogen influences osmotic secretion of AVP and body water balance in postmenopausal women. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 1998;274(1):R187–95.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stachenfeld NS, Silva C, Keefe DL, Kokoszka CA, Nadel ER. Effects of oral contraceptives on body fluid regulation. J Appl Physiol. 1999;87(3):1016–25.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stachenfeld NS, Silva C, Keefe DL. Estrogen modifies the temperature effects of progesterone. J Appl Physiol. 2000;88(5):1643–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stachenfeld NS, Keefe DL, Palter SF. Estrogen and progesterone effects on transcapillary fluid dynamics. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001a;281(4):R1319–29.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stachenfeld NS, Splenser AE, Calzone WL, Taylor MP, Keefe DL. Selected Contribution: Sex differences in osmotic regulation of AVP and renal sodium handling. J Appl Physiol. 2001b;91(4):1893–901.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stephens DP, Bennett LA, Aoki K, Kosiba WA, Charkoudian N, Johnson JM. Sympathetic nonnoradrenergic cutaneous vasoconstriction in women is associated with reproductive hormone status. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;282(1):H264–72.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stephenson LA, Kolka MA. Plasma volume during heat stress and exercise in women. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1988;57:373–81.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stephenson LA, Kolka MA. Esophageal temperature threshold for sweating decreases before ovulation in premenopausal women. J Appl Physiol. 1999;86(1):22–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stephenson LA, Kolka MA, Francesconi R, Gonzales RR. Circadian variations in plasma renin activity, catecholamines, and aldosterone during exercise in women. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1989;58:756–64.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stumpf WE, Denny ME. Vitamin D (soltriol), light, and reproduction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989;161(5):1375–84.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stupka N, Tiidus PM. Effects of ovariectomy and estrogen on ischemia-reperfusion injury in hindlimbs of female rats. J Appl Physiol. 2001;91(4):1828–35.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Suh S-H, Casazza G, Horning M, Miller B, Brooks G. Luteal and follicular glucose fluxes during rest and exercise in 3-h postabsorptive women. J Appl Physiol. 2002;93:42–50.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Suh S-H, Casazza G, Horning M, Miller B, Brooks G. Effects of oral contraceptives on glucose flux and substrate oxidation rates during rest and exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2003;94:285–94.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sun F-H, Wong S-S, Chen S-H, Poon T-C. Carbohydrate electrolyte solutions enhance endurance capacity in active females. Nutrients. 2015;7:3739–50.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Tarnopolsky M, Atkinson S, Phillips S, MacDougall J. Carbohydrate loading and metabolism during exercise in men and women. J Appl Physiol. 1995;75:2134–41.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tarnopolsky M, Bosman M, MacDonald J, Vadeputte D, Martin J, Roy B. Post-exercise protein-carbohydrate and carbohydrate supplements increase muscle glycogen in men and women. J Appl Physiol. 1997;83(6):1877–83.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tarnopolsky M, Zawada C, Richmond L, Carter S, Shearer J, Graham T, et al. Gender differences in carbohydrate loading are related to energy intake. J Appl Physiol. 2001;91:225–30.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Temesi J, Johnson N, Raymond J, Burdon C, O’Connor H. Carbohydrate ingestion during endurance exercise improves performance in adults. J Nutr. 2011;141:890–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Thys-Jacobs S. Micronutrients and the premenstrual syndrome: the case for calcium. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(2):220–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Thys-Jacobs S, McMahon D, Bilezikian JP. Cyclical changes in calcium metabolism across the menstrual cycle in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(8):2952–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tranquilli A, Mazzanti L, Cugini A, Cester N, Garzett G, Romanini C. Transdermal estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate in hormone replacement therapy are both antioxidants. Gynecol Endocrinol. 1995;9(2):137–41.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Van Pelt R, Gozansky W, Schwartz R, Kohrt W. Intravenous estrogens increase insulin clearance and action in postmenopausal women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003;285:E311–7.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Verney EB. The antidiuretic hormone and the factors which determine its release. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1947;135(878):25–106.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Vina J, Borras C, Gambini J, Sastre J, Pallardo FV. Why females live longer than males: control of longevity by sex hormones. Sci Aging Knowledge Environ. 2005;2005(23), e17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Walker J, Heigenhauser G, Hultman E, Spriet L. Dietary carbohydrate, muscle glycogen content, and endurance performance in well-trained women. J Appl Physiol. 2000;88:2151–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wallis G, Yeo S, Blannin A, Jeukendrup A. Dose-response effects of ingested carbohydrate on exercise metabolism in women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(1):131–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wismann J, Willoughby D. Gender differences in carbohydrate metabolism and carbohydrate loading. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2006;31(1):28–34.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zderic T, Coggan A, Ruby B. Glucose kinetics and substrate oxidation during exercise in the follicular and luteal phases. J Appl Physiol. 2001;90:447–53.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zittermann A, Geppert J, Baier S, Zehn N, Gouni-Berthold I, Berthold HK, et al. Short-term effects of high soy supplementation on sex hormones, bone markers, and lipid parameters in young female adults. Eur J Nutr. 2004;43(2):100–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dr James D. Cotter for his insightful suggestions.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nancy J. Rehrer B.A., M.Sc., Ph.D. .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Rehrer, N.J., McLay-Cooke, R.T., Sims, S.T. (2017). Nutritional Strategies and Sex Hormone Interactions in Women. In: Hackney, A. (eds) Sex Hormones, Exercise and Women. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44558-8_6

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44558-8_6

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-44557-1

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-44558-8

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics