Social Smart City: Introducing Digital and Social Strategies for Participatory Governance in Smart Cities

  • Robin Effing
  • Bert P. Groot
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9820)


Cities increasingly face challenges regarding participatory governance in order to become a “smart city”. The world’s best cities to live in are not the ones with the most advanced technological layers but cities that create an atmosphere where citizens, companies and government together build a vital and sustainable city. This study compares various definitions of smart cities and integrates current insights from the field of e-participation. Five best-practice examples from over the world illustrate the various ways participation can be developed from various leadership perspectives. A new conceptual framework, the Social Smart City framework, is derived from both e-participation theory and these best-practice examples. The framework comprises of a set of digital strategies for participatory governance in smart cities.


Smart city Electronic participation Governance Participatory governance 



This study was supported and partly funded by the Province of Overijssel in the Netherlands as part of a research project: “Tech For Future”.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Saxion University of Applied SciencesEnschedeThe Netherlands

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