Advertisement

Social Smart City: Introducing Digital and Social Strategies for Participatory Governance in Smart Cities

  • Robin Effing
  • Bert P. Groot
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9820)

Abstract

Cities increasingly face challenges regarding participatory governance in order to become a “smart city”. The world’s best cities to live in are not the ones with the most advanced technological layers but cities that create an atmosphere where citizens, companies and government together build a vital and sustainable city. This study compares various definitions of smart cities and integrates current insights from the field of e-participation. Five best-practice examples from over the world illustrate the various ways participation can be developed from various leadership perspectives. A new conceptual framework, the Social Smart City framework, is derived from both e-participation theory and these best-practice examples. The framework comprises of a set of digital strategies for participatory governance in smart cities.

Keywords

Smart city Electronic participation Governance Participatory governance 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported and partly funded by the Province of Overijssel in the Netherlands as part of a research project: “Tech For Future Brid.ge”. http://www.smartcitystrategy.eu

References

  1. 1.
    Economist: Tomorrows Cities, Creating Optimal Environments for Citizens, London (2015). http://www.economistinsights.com/infrastructure-cities/analysis/tomorrows-cities
  2. 2.
    Gil-Garcia, J.R., Pardo, T.A., Nam, T.: What makes a city smart? Identifying core components and proposing an integrative and comprehensive conceptualization. Inf. Polity 20, 61–87 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dawes, S.S., Vidiasova, L., Parkhimovich, O.: Planning and designing open government data programs: an ecosystem approach. Gov. Inf. Q. 33, 15–27 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Caragliu, A., Del Bo, C., Nijkamp, P.: Smart cities in Europe. J. Urban Technol. 18, 65–82 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mellouli, S., Luna-Reyes, L.F., Zhang, J.: Smart government, citizen participation and open data. Inf. Polity 19, 1–4 (2014)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Latour, B.: Reassembling the Social. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Townsend, A.M.: Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia. W. W. Norton and Company, New York (2013)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jorna, F.B.A., Veenstra, M.J.A.: Setting up smart cities ecosystems, essential building blocks. In: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference Connected Smart Cities (2015)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sivarajah, U., Irani, Z., Weerakkody, V.: Evaluating the use and impact of Web 2.0 technologies in local government. Gov. Inf. Q. 32, 473–487 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schaffers, H., Komninos, N., Pallot, M., Trousse, B., Nilsson, M., Oliveira, A.: Smart cities and the future internet: towards cooperation frameworks for open innovation. Future Internet Assembly 6656, 431–446 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hall, R.E., Bowerman, B., Braverman, J., Taylor, J., Todosow, H., Von Wimmersperg, U.: The vision of a smart city. In: 2nd International Life Extension Technology Workshop, Paris (2000)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nam, T., Pardo, T.A.: Conceptualizing smart city with dimensions of technology, people, and institutions. In: Proceedings of 12th Annual International Digital Government Research Conference Digital Government Innovation Challenging Times - dg.o 2011, p. 282 (2011)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Paroutis, S., Bennett, M., Heracleous, L.: A strategic view on smart city technology: the case of IBM smarter cities during a recession. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change 89, 262–272 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Harrison, C., Eckman, B., Hamilton, R., Hartswick, P., Kalagnanam, J., Paraszczak, J., Williams, P.: Foundations for smarter cities. IBM J. Res. Dev. 54, 1–16 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kennedy, R.: E-regulation and the rule of law: smart government, institutional information infrastructures, and fundamental values. Inf. Polity 21, 77–98 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Neirotti, P., De Marco, A., Cagliano, A.C., Mangano, G., Scorrano, F.: Current trends in smart city initiatives: some stylised facts. Cities 38, 25–36 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Saunders, T., Baeck, P.: Rethinking Smart Cities from the Ground Up. Nesta, London (2015)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kondepudi, S.N.: Smart Sustainable Cities Analysis of Definitions, ITU-T (2014)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Arnstein, S.R.: A ladder of citizen participation. J. Am. Inst. Plann. 35, 216–224 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Granier, B., Kudo, H.: How are citizens involved in smart cities? Analysing citizen participation in Japanese smart communities. Inf. Polity 21(1), 1–16 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Anadiotis, G., Alexopoulos, P., Mpaslis, K., Zosakis, A., Kafentzis, K., Kotis, K.: Facilitating dialogue - using semantic web technology for eparticipation. In: Aroyo, L., Antoniou, G., Hyvönen, E., ten Teije, A., Stuckenschmidt, H., Cabral, L., Tudorache, T. (eds.) ESWC 2010, Part I. LNCS, vol. 6088, pp. 258–272. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Conroy, M.M., Evans-Cowley, J.: E-participation in planning: an analysis of cities adopting on-line citizen participation tools. Environ. Plann. 24, 371–384 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    French, S., Insua, D.R., Ruggeri, F.: e-Participation and decision analysis. Decis. Anal. 4, 211–226 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grönlund, Å.: ICT is not participation is not democracy – eParticipation development models revisited. In: Macintosh, A., Tambouris, E. (eds.) ePart 2009. LNCS, vol. 5694, pp. 12–23. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hansen, H.S., Reinau, K.H.: The citizens in e-participation. In: Wimmer, M.A., Scholl, H.J., Grönlund, Å., Andersen, K.V. (eds.) EGOV 2006. LNCS, vol. 4084, pp. 70–82. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Koh, J., Kim, Y., Butler, B., Bock, G.: Encouraging participation. Commun. ACM 50, 69–74 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Loureno, R.P., Costa, J.P.: Incorporating citizens views in local policy decision making processes. Decis. Support Syst. 43, 1499–1511 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Loukis, E., Xenakis, A.: Evaluating parliamentary e-participation. ICDIM 2008, 806–812 (2008)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Medaglia, R.: Measuring the diffusion of eParticipation: a survey on Italian local government. Inf. Polity 12, 265–280 (2007)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sæbø, Ø., Rose, J., Molka-danielsen, J.: eParticipation: designing and managing political discussion forums. Soc. Sci. Comput. Rev. 28, 403–426 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sommer, L., Cullen, R.: Participation 2.0: a case study of e-participation within the New Zealand government. In: 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2009 (2009)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sanford, C., Rose, J.: Characterizing eParticipation. Int. J. Inf. Manag. 27, 406–421 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Both, M., Kommers, P., Verhijde, M.: OpenGovEU Project: Handbook Best Practices (2015)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bridges, F., Appel, L., Grossklags, J.: Young adults online participation behaviors: an exploratory study of web 2.0 use for political engagement. Inf. Polity 17, 163–176 (2012)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lilleker, D.G., Pack, M., Jackson, N.: Political parties and web 2.0: the liberal democrat perspective. Polit. Stud. 30, 105–112 (2010)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hibberd, M.: E-participation broadcasting and democracy in the UK. Converg.: Int. J. Res. New Media Technol. 9, 47–65 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Moreira, A.M., Moller, M., Gerhardt, G., Ladner, A.: E-society and E-democracy. In: eGovernment-Symposium 2009 (2009)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Holt, K., Shehata, A., Stromback, J., Ljungberg, E.: Age and the effects of news media attention and social media use on political interest and participation: do social media function as leveller? Eur. J. Commun. 28, 19–34 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Castells, M.: The Rise of the Network Society: The Information Age: Economy, Society, and Culture. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester (2009)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Carayannis, E.G., Barth, T.D., Campbell, D.F.: The Quintuple Helix innovation model: global warming as a challenge and driver for innovation. J. Innov. Entrep. 1, 2 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nesta: PiMi Airbox: a low-cost air quality monitor which creates a crowdsourced map of indoor air pollution in Beijing. https://www.nesta.org.uk/news/10-people-centred-smart-city-initiatives/pimi-airbox
  42. 42.
    Sharing City Seoul Annual Report 2014. http://sharehub.kr/2014/en/
  43. 43.
    Seibel, B.: Open Data in der Praxis. Technologie Stiftung Berlin, Berlin (2016)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Janssen, M., van den Hoven, J.: Big and open linked data (BOLD) in government: a challenge to transparency and privacy? Gov. Inf. Q. 32, 363–368 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zuiderwijk, A., Janssen, M.: Open data policies, their implementation and impact: a framework for comparison. Gov. Inf. Q. 31, 17–29 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Scholl, H.J.: Five trends that matter: challenges to 21st century eGov. Inf. Polity 17, 317–327 (2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2016

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/), which permits any noncommercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Saxion University of Applied SciencesEnschedeThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations