Bloating is a bothersome complaint often reported to physician and most times is a benign entity with occasional emergent conditions. This chapter guides the physician through the myriad causes of bloating and provides treatment options for non-emergent causes of bloating.
- Abdominal pain
- Functional bloating
- Gas transit
- Gas production
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
Szarka L, Levitt M. Belching, bloating and flatulence. Am Coll Gastroenterol, 2006.
Azpiroz F, Malagelada JR. Abdominal bloating. Gastroenterology. 2005;129(3):1060–78.
Rao SSC. Belching, bloating, and flatulence. Postgrad Med. 1997;101(4):263–78.
Iovino P, Bucci C, Tremolaterra F, Santonicola A, Chiarioni G. Bloating and functional gastro-intestinal disorders: where are we and where are we going? World J Gastroenterol: WJG. 2014;20(39):14407.
Drossman DA, Li Z, Andruzzi E, et al. U.S. householder survey of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Prevalence, sociodemography, and health impact. Dig Dis Sci. 1993;38:1569–80.
Houghton LA, Lea R, Agrawal A, Reilly B, Whorwell PJ. Relationship of abdominal bloating to distention in irritable bowel syndrome and effect of bowel habit. Gastroenterology. 2006;131:1003–10.
Longstreth GF, Thompson WG, Chey WD, Houghton LA, Mearin F, Spiller RC. Functional bowel disorders. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:1480–91.
Sandler RS, Stewart WF, Liberman JN, Ricci JA, Zorich NL. Abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea in the United States: prevalence and impact. Dig Dis Sci. 2000;45:1166–71.
Lacy BE, Gabbard SL, Crowell MD. Pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of bloating: hope, hype, or hot air? Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;7(11):729.
Serra J, Azpiroz F, Malagelada JR. Gastric distension and duodenal lipid infusion modulate intestinal gas transit and tolerance in humans. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97:2225–30.
Harder H, Serra J, Azpiroz F, Malagelada JR. Reflex control of intestinal gas dynamics and tolerance in humans. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004;286:G89–94.
Levitt MD. Volume and composition of human intestinal gas determined by means of an intestinal washout technic. N Engl J Med. 1971;284:1394–8.
Lasser RB, Bond JH, Levitt MD. The role of intestinal gas in functional abdominal pain. N Engl J Med. 1975;293:524–6.
Perez F, Accarino A, Azpiroz F, Quiroga S, Malagelada JR. Gas distribution within the human gut: effect of meals. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102:842–9.
Accarino A, Perez F, Azpiroz F, Quiroga S, Malagelada JR. Intestinal gas and bloating: effect of prokinetic stimulation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:2036–42.
Koide A, Yamaguchi T, Odaka T, et al. Quantitative analysis of bowel gas using plain abdominal radiograph in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000;95:1735–41.
Serra J, Azpiroz F, Malagelada JR. Impaired transit and tolerance of intestinal gas in the irritable bowel syndrome. Gut. 2001;48:14–9.
Hernando-Harder AC, Serra J, Azpiroz F, et al. Colonic responses to gas loads in subgroups of patients with abdominal bloating. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105:876–82.
Passos MC, Serra J, Azpiroz F, Tremolaterra F, Malagelada JR. Impaired reflex control of intestinal gas transit in patients with abdominal bloating. Gut. 2005;54:344–8.
Accarino A, Perez F, Azpiroz F, Quiroga S, Malagelada JR. Abdominal distention results from caudo-ventral redistribution of contents. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1544–51.
Bouin M, Plourde V, Boivin M, et al. Rectal distention testing in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of pain sensory thresholds. Gastroenterology. 2002;122:1771–7.
Villoria A, Serra J, Azpiroz F, Malagelada JR. Physical activity and intestinal gas clearance in patients with bloating. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:2552–7.
Ringel-Kulka T, Palsson OS, Maier D, et al. Probiotic bacteria lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 versus placebo for the symptoms of bloating in patients with functional bowel disorders: a double-blind study. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2011;45:518–25.
Editors and Affiliations
© 2017 Springer International Publishing Switzerland
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Desai, B., Desai, A. (2017). Bloating. In: Desai, B., Desai, A. (eds) Primary Care for Emergency Physicians. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44360-7_16
Publisher Name: Springer, Cham
Print ISBN: 978-3-319-44358-4
Online ISBN: 978-3-319-44360-7