Iran: Multiple Sources of a Grassroots Social Democracy?



This chapter suggests that the quest for a grassroots social democracy in Iran holds deep and diverse socio-intellectual roots. It is as old as the 1906 Constitutional Revolution, and as broad as secular and religious socialists of Muslim, Marxist, and nationalist origins. It briefly examines the contribution of Mohammad Nakhshab, Khalil Maleki, and Ali Shari‘ati to a social approach to democracy. The chapter also problematizes the limits of liberal paradigm and highlights the merits of the twin pillars of a grassroots social democracy: social justice and societal empowerment. It examines what today’s Iran can learn from the global and local tradition of social democracy. It also sheds light on the possibility of a discourse building toward a grassroots social democracy in Iran.


Civil Society Social Justice Socialist Theist Deliberative Democracy Social Democracy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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