Advertisement

Nematode Pests of Sugarcane

  • Shaun D. Berry
  • Patrice Cadet
  • Vaughan W. SpaullEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Sugarcane in South Africa hosts more than 90 species of 28 genera of plant-parasitic nematodes. The more common include Helicotylenchus dihystera, Pratylenchus zeae, Xiphinema elongatum and, on sandy soils, Meloidogyne javanica. Root damage caused by nematodes reduces the number and length of cane stalks and yield of sucrose. Nematodes cause an estimated 9 % loss of production. Crop loss is reduced by using nematicides and nematode-tolerant cultivars. Helicotylenchus dihystera seemingly mitigates the pathogenicity of other plant-feeding nematodes and is associated with higher-yielding crops. Management practices that favour H. dihystera should provide a sustainable means of reducing the effect of more pathogenic species.

Keywords

Control strategies Community management Helicotylenchus dihystera Interaction Species distribution Sugar production 

References

  1. Anonymous (1982) Growing sugarcane on the recent sands. S Afr Sugar J 66:369–370Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous (2009) South African sugar industry directory 2008/2009. South African Sugar Association, Mount EdgecombeGoogle Scholar
  3. Anonymous (2014a) South African sugar industry directory. http://www.sasa.org.za/Files/Industry%20Directory%202013%20-%202014.pdf. Accessed 12 Nov 2015
  4. Anonymous (2014b) Annual SADC digest 2014: your guide to the sugar industry. http://sadcsugardigest.com/digest_flip_book/. Accessed 14 Nov 2015
  5. Baker C (2015) Message from the Director. The Link. South Afr Sugarcane Res Inst 24:2–3Google Scholar
  6. Berry SD (2006) Diversité et dynamique des communautés de nématodes phytoparasites en culture de canne à sucre en Afrique du Sud; répercussion sur la plante. PhD Thesis, University of Montpellier II, MontpellierGoogle Scholar
  7. Berry S, Rhodes R (2006) Green manure crops: agronomic characteristics and effect on nematodes. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 80:269–273Google Scholar
  8. Berry S, Spaull VW (2008) Use of cropguard to improve sugarcane yield on nematode infested soils of South Africa. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 81:310–318Google Scholar
  9. Berry S, Wiseman EJ (2003) The effect of green manure crops on plant parasitic nematodes in the South African Sugar Industry. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 77:114–117Google Scholar
  10. Berry SD, Cadet P, Spaull VW (2004) Estimation of nematode damage to sugarcane in sandy soil in KwaZulu Natal. Afr Plant Prot 10:125Google Scholar
  11. Berry S, Cadet P, Spaull VW (2005) Effect of certain cultural practices on nematode management in a small-scale farming system. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 79:149–164Google Scholar
  12. Berry S, Spaull VW, Cadet P (2007) Impact of harvesting practices on nematode communities and yield of sugarcane. Crop Prot 26:1239–1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berry S, Cadet P, Parfitt R et al (2008) Nematological environment and selection pressure on six SASRI research farms. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 81:274–286Google Scholar
  14. Berry SD, Spaull VW, Cadet P (2009) Field assessment of biologically-based control products against nematodes on sugarcane in South Africa. Afr Plant Prot 15:1–12Google Scholar
  15. Berry SD, Leslie GW, Spaull VW et al (2010) Within-field damage and distribution patterns of the stalk borer, Eldana saccharina, (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in sugarcane and a comparison with nematode damage. Bull Entomol Res 100:373–385CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Berry SD, Rhodes R, Foster J et al (2013) The effect of cover crops on plant parasitic nematodes. Intern J Pest Manag 54:363–375Google Scholar
  17. Blume H (1985) Geography of sugar cane: environmental, structural and economical aspects of cane sugar production. Verlag Dr. Albert Bartens, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  18. Butterfield MK, D’Hont A, Berding N (2001) The sugarcane genome. A synthesis of current understanding, and lessons for breeding and biotechnology. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 75:1–5Google Scholar
  19. Cadet P (1985) Incidence des nématodes sur les repousses de canne à sucre au Burkina Faso et en Côte d’Ivoire. Rev Nématol 8:277–284Google Scholar
  20. Cadet P (1986) Evolution des nématodes ectoparasites dans la rhizosphère de la canne à sucre au Burkina Faso. Rev Ecol Biol du Sol 23:205–213Google Scholar
  21. Cadet P, Spaull VW (1985) Studies on the relationship between nematodes and sugarcane in South and West Africa: plant cane. Rev Nématol 8:131–142Google Scholar
  22. Cadet P, Spaull VW (2003) Effect of nematodes on sustainability of sugarcane production in South Africa. Field Crops Res 83:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cadet P, Spaull VW (2005) Nematode parasites of sugarcane. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J (eds) Plant parasitic nematodes in subtropical and tropical agriculture, 2nd edn. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 645–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cadet P, Spaull VW, McArthur DG (2002) Role of plant parasitic nematodes and abiotic soil factors in growth heterogeneity of sugarcane on a sandy soil in South Africa. Plant and Soil 246:259–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cadet P, Berry S, Spaull VW (2004) Mapping of interactions between soil factors and nematodes. Europ J Soil Biol 40:77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cadet P, Berry S, Spaull VW (2005) Long term ratooning of sugarcane on sandy soils in KwaZulu-Natal. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 79:175–178Google Scholar
  27. Cadet P, Berry S, Leslie G et al (2006) Management of nematodes and a stalk borer by increasing within-field sugarcane cultivar diversity. Plant Pathol 56:526–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cook R, Evans K (1987) Resistance and tolerance. In: Brown RH, Kerry BR (eds) Principles and practice of nematode control in crops. Academic, Sydney, pp 179–231Google Scholar
  29. Cooper WR, Jia L, Goggin L (2005) Effects of jasmonate-induced defences on root-knot nematode infection of resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. J Chem Ecol 31:1953–1967CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dana P, Cadet P, Spaull VW (2002) Field variation of abiotic factors and their relationship with nematode communities in sugarcane. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 76:597–600Google Scholar
  31. Dick J (1961) Eelworms and sugarcane. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 35:110–113Google Scholar
  32. Dick J, Harris RHG (1975) Nematodes and sugarcane. S Afr Sugar J 59:397–410Google Scholar
  33. Donaldson RA (1983) The effect of placement on the efficacy of granular nematicides. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 57:120–122Google Scholar
  34. Donaldson RA (1985) The effects of soil pH, clay content, rainfall and age at harvest on the yield response of sugarcane to Temik. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 59:164–167Google Scholar
  35. Donaldson RA (1987) Some aspects related to the use of nematicides on sugarcane in South Africa. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 61:117–120Google Scholar
  36. Donaldson RA (1988) Nematicides for sugarcane. S Afr Sugar J 72:57–61, 92–97Google Scholar
  37. Donaldson RA, Turner PET (1984) The interaction of herbicides and nematicides on plant cane grown in weak sandy soils. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 58:137–142Google Scholar
  38. Donaldson RA, Turner PET (1988) A preliminary report of the effect of soil moisture level on responses to Temik and Curaterr. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 62:164–168Google Scholar
  39. Edmonds GJ (2014) Investigating induced resistance in sugarcane. MSc Dissertation, University of KwaZulu-Natal, PietermaritzburgGoogle Scholar
  40. Gosnell J (2013) Biomass management: ethanol and electricity generation. In: Meyer J, Rein P, Turner P et al (eds) Good management practices for the cane sugar industry. Verlag Dr. Albert Bartens, Berlin, pp 395–420Google Scholar
  41. Govaerts B, Mezzalam M, Unno Y et al (2007) Influence of tillage, residue management, and crop rotation on soil microbial biomass and catabolic diversity. Appl Soil Ecol 37:18–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Guimaraes LMP, Pedrosa EMR, Coelho RSB et al (2008) Efeito de Metil Jasmonato e Silicato de Potássio no Parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita e Pratylenchus zeae em Cana-de-Açúcar. Nematol Brasil 32:50–55Google Scholar
  43. Guyon S, Vogel JL, Omarjee J et al (2003) Burkholderia tropicalis, a potential bacterial inoculant to control nematodes and improve sugarcane growth. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 77:118–123Google Scholar
  44. Harris RHG (1973) Nematicide experiments in the South African Sugar Industry. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 47:185–190Google Scholar
  45. Herbert A (1991) CG Smith: One hundred years. Fishwick Printers, DurbanGoogle Scholar
  46. Kleynhans KPN, Van den Berg E, Swart A et al (1996) Plant nematodes in South Africa. Handbook no.8. Plant Protection Research Institute, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  47. Luc M, Reversat G (1985) Possibilités et limites des solutions génétiques aux affections provoquées par les nématodes sur les cultures tropicales. Comptes rendus des Séances de l’Académie d’Agriculture de France 71:781–791Google Scholar
  48. Martin GC (1967) Plant parasitic nematodes associated with sugarcane production in Rhodesia. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 15:45–58Google Scholar
  49. Mathias K (2013) Outgrowers. In: Meyer J, Rein P, Turner P et al (eds) Good management practices for the cane sugar industry. Verlag Dr. Albert Bartens, Berlin, pp 549–584Google Scholar
  50. McArthur DG, Spaull VW (1995) A note on the effect of aldicarb on the yield of four sugarcane varieties on a sandy soil in the Natal Midlands. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 69:25–27Google Scholar
  51. Moberly PK, Meyer JH (1978) Filter cake – a field and glasshouse evaluation. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 52:131–135Google Scholar
  52. Moberly PK, Clowes MSJ (1981) Trials with nematicides registered for use on sugarcane in South Africa. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 55:92–98Google Scholar
  53. Moberly PK, Harris RHG, Millard E (1974) An investigation into the problem of poor sugarcane growth on some sandy soils of the Natal Sugar belt. Proc Internat Soc Sugar Cane Technol 15:923–931Google Scholar
  54. Nahar K, Kyndt T, De Vleesschauwer D et al (2011) The jasmonate pathway is a key player in systemically induced defense against root knot nematodes in rice. Plant Physiol 157:305–316CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Oka Y, Cohen Y (2004) Induced resistance to cyst and root-knot nematodes in cereals by DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid. Europ J Plant Pathol 107:219–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Omarjee J (2006) Effets des peuplement de Burkholderia et de nématodes sur la coissance de la canne à sucre. PhD thesis, University of Claude Bernard-Lyon, LyonGoogle Scholar
  57. Omarjee J, Balandreau J, Spaull VW et al (2008) Relationship between Burkholderia populations and plant parasitic nematodes in sugarcane. Appl Soil Ecol 39:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Oostendorp M, Kunz W, Dietrich B et al (2004) Induced disease resistance in plants by chemicals. Europ J Plant Pathol 107:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Osborn RF (1964) Valiant harvest: the founding of the South African Sugar Industry 1848–1926. Brown Davis and Platt Ltd, DurbanGoogle Scholar
  60. Pankhurst CE, Magarey RC, Stirling GR et al (2003) Management practices to improve soil health and reduce the effects of detrimental soil biota associated with yield decline of sugarcane in Queensland, Australia. Soil and Tillage Res 72:125–137Google Scholar
  61. Paturau JM (1982) By-products of the cane sugar industry: an introduction to their industrial utilization, 2nd edn. Elsevier Scientific Publishing, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  62. Prammanee P, Grange I, Prasertsak P et al (2001) Minimum tillage of sugarcane in Thailand: its effect on yields, soil properties and cost effectiveness. Proc Internat Soc Sugar Cane Technol 24:202–204Google Scholar
  63. Ramouthar P (2015) Impact of green manures on nematode control. The Link. South Afr Sugarcane Res Inst 24:24–25Google Scholar
  64. Ramouthar PV, De Haas O, Berry SD (2012) Long term effects of nematodes on six South African sugarcane varieties. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 85:155–170Google Scholar
  65. Rau S, Moberly PK (1975) Nematicide application to ratoon crops of sugarcane grown in some sandy soils of the Natal sugarbelt. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 49:171–173Google Scholar
  66. Rein P, Purchase B (2013) Management of wastes and effluents. In: Meyer J, Rein P, Turner P et al (eds) Good management practices for the cane sugar industry. Verlag Dr. Albert Bartens, Berlin, pp 477–499Google Scholar
  67. Richardson FE, Watt EJ (1980) Foliar applications of oxamyl to ratoon sugarcane for nematode control. Proc Internat Soc Sugar Cane Technol 17:1865–1872Google Scholar
  68. Rimé D, Nazaret S, Gourbiere F et al (2003) Comparison of sandy soils suppressive or conducive to ectoparasitic nematode damage on sugarcane. Phytopathol 93:1437–1444Google Scholar
  69. Rosenfeld AH (1956) Sugarcane around the world. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  70. Rostron H (1976) Rate, time and methods of Temik application in ratoon sugarcane. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 50:29–33Google Scholar
  71. Sikora RA, Bridge J, Starr JL (2005a) Management practices: an overview of integrated nematode management technologies. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J (eds) Plant parasitic nematodes in subtropical and tropical agriculture. 2nd edn. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 793–825Google Scholar
  72. Sikora RA, Greco N, Silva JFV (2005b) Nematode parasites of food legumes. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J (eds) Plant parasitic nematodes in subtropical and tropical agriculture. 2nd edn. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 259–318Google Scholar
  73. Spaull VW (1981a) Nematodes associated with sugarcane in South Africa. Phytophylactica 13:175–179Google Scholar
  74. Spaull VW (1981b) Bacillus penetrans in South African plant parasitic nematodes. Nematologica 27:244–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Spaull VW (1984) Observations on Bacillus penetrans infecting Meloidogyne in sugarcane fields in South Africa. Rev Nématol 7:277–282Google Scholar
  76. Spaull VW (1995) A revised estimate of crop loss in sugarcane caused by nematodes. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 69:28–34Google Scholar
  77. Spaull VW (1996) Factors affecting the response of sugarcane to treatment with nematicide. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 70:14Google Scholar
  78. Spaull VW (1997) On the use of furfural to control nematodes in sugarcane. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 71:96Google Scholar
  79. Spaull V (2013) Pest control. In: Meyer J, Rein P, Turner P et al (eds) Good management practices for the cane sugar industry. Verlag Dr. Albert Bartens, Berlin, pp 301–330Google Scholar
  80. Spaull VW, Bailey RA (1993) Combined effect of nematodes and ratoon stunting disease on sugarcane. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 67:29–33Google Scholar
  81. Spaull VW, Cadet P (1991) Studies on the relationship between nematodes and sugarcane in South and West Africa: ratoon cane. Rev Nématol 14:183–186Google Scholar
  82. Spaull VW, Cadet P (2001) Nematodes and nutrients: association between plant-parasitic nematodes and soil chemicals. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 75:116–117Google Scholar
  83. Spaull VW, Cadet P (2003) Impact of nematodes on sugarcane and the benefit of tolerant varieties. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 77:230–238Google Scholar
  84. Spaull VW, Donaldson RA (1983) Relationship between time of nematicide application, numbers of nematodes and response to treatment in ratoon sugarcane. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 57:123–127Google Scholar
  85. Spaull VW, Heyns J (1991) Distribution of longidorid nematodes in sugarcane fields in South Africa. Phytophylactica 23:167–172Google Scholar
  86. Spaull VW, Cadet P, Gers C (2003) Factors affecting the distribution of plant feeding nematodes in KwaZulu-Natal. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 77:220–222Google Scholar
  87. Spaull VW, Cadet P, Berry S (2005) Sugarcane varieties suitable for sandy soils in Mpumalanga. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 79:165–174Google Scholar
  88. Stirling GR (2008) The impact of farming systems on soil biology and soilborne diseases: examples from the Australian sugar and vegetable industries – the case for better integration of sugarcane and vegetable production and implications for future research. Australasian Plant Pathol 37:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. van Antwerpen T, van Antwerpen R, Meyer JH et al (2007) Factors associated with a healthy soil in sugarcane production in KwaZulu-Natal. Proc Internat Soc Sugar Cane Technol 26:273–281Google Scholar
  90. van Antwerpen R, Berry SD, van Antwerpen T et al (2009) Indicators of soil health for use in the South African Sugar Industry: a work in progress. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 82:551–563Google Scholar
  91. van Antwerpen R, Berry SD, van Antwerpen T et al (2013) Sugarcane as an energy crop: its role in biomass economy. In: Singh BP (ed) Biofuel crop sustainability. Wiley, Ames, pp 53–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Van den Berg E, Palomares-Rius JE, Vovlas N et al (2016) Morphological and molecular characterisation of one new and several known species of the reniform nematode genus Rotylenchulus Linford & Oliveira, 1940 (Rotylenchulinae, Hoplolaimidae) and a phylogeny of the genus. Nematol 18:67–107Google Scholar
  93. van Dillewijn C (1952) Botany of sugarcane. Chronica Botanica Co., WalthamGoogle Scholar
  94. Villenave C, Cadet P (1998) Interaction of Helicotylenchus dihystera, Pratylenchus pseudopratensis and Tylenchorhynchus gladiolatus on two plants from the soudano-sahelian zone of West Africa. Nematropica 28:31–39Google Scholar
  95. Vogel JL, Balandreau J, van Antwerpen T et al (2002) Isolation and characterisation of sugarcane rhizobacteria and their effect on nematodes. Proc S Afr Sugar Techn Ass 76:305–309Google Scholar
  96. Webster JM (1987) Introduction. In: Brown RH, Kerry BR (eds) Principles and practice of nematode control in crops. Academic Press, Sydney, pp 1–11Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shaun D. Berry
    • 1
  • Patrice Cadet
    • 2
  • Vaughan W. Spaull
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.BASF CorporationDurhamUSA
  2. 2.St Forgeux LespinasseFrance
  3. 3.DurbanSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations