Cloacal Exstrophy

  • Ahmed H. Al-Salem


Cloacal exstrophy is an extremely rare and major birth defect representing the severe end of the spectrum of the exstrophy-epispadias complex (Fig. 18.1).


Short Bowel Syndrome Anorectal Malformation Horseshoe Kidney Imperforate Anus Urogenital Sinus 
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Further Reading

  1. 1.
    Lund DP, Hendren WH. Cloacal extrophy: experience with 20 cases. J Pediatr Surg. 1993;28:1360–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Manzoni GA, Ransley PG, Hurwitz RS. Cloacal extrophy and cloacal extrophy variants: a proposed system of classification. J Urol. 1987;138:1065–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ricketts RR, Woodard JR, Zwiren GT, Andrews HG, Broeker BH. Modern treatment of cloacal extrophy. J Pediatr Surg. 1991;26:444–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stolar CJH, Randolph JG, Flanigan LP. Cloacal extrophy: individualized management through a staged surgical approach. J Pediatr Surg. 1990;25:505–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed H. Al-Salem
    • 1
  1. 1.Pediatric SurgeryAlSadik HospitalQatifSaudi Arabia

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