Cloacal Anomalies

  • Ahmed H. Al-Salem


In animal anatomy, a cloaca/kloʊˈeɪkə/kloh-ay-kə (plural cloacae /kloʊˈeɪsiː/kloh-ay-see) is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts of certain animals.


Common Channel Anorectal Malformation Tethered Cord Colostomy Closure Urinary Control 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Further Reading

  1. 1.
    Bischoff A, Levitt MA, Breech L, Louden E, Peña A. Hydrocolpos in cloacal malformations. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45:1241–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bischoff A, Levitt MA, Lim FY, Guimarães C, Peña A. Prenatal diagnosis of cloacal malformations. Pediatr Surg Int. 2010;26:1071–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hendren WH. Further experience in reconstructive surgery for cloacal anomalies. J Pediatr Surg. 1982;17(6):695–717.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hendren WH. Urological aspects of cloacal malformations. J Urol. 1988;140(5 Pt 2):1207–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hendren WH. Cloacal malformations: experience with 105 cases. J Pediatr Surg. 1992;27(7):890–901.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hendren WH. Management of cloacal malformations. Semin Pediatr Surg. 1997;6(4):217–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hendren WH. Cloaca, the most severe degree of imperforate anus: experience with 195 cases. Ann Surg. 1998;228(3):331–46.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Levitt MA, Bischoff A, Peña A. Pitfalls and challenges of cloaca repair; how to reduce the need for reoperations. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46:1250–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Levitt MA, Mak GA, Falcone RA, Peña A. Cloacal exstrophy – pull through or permanent stoma? A review of 53 patients. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:164–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Levitt MA, Peña A. Cloacal malformations: lessons learned from 490 cases. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2010;19:128–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lund DP, Hendren WH. Cloacal exstrophy: a 25-year experience with 50 cases. J Pediatr Surg. 2001;36(1):68–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Patel MN, Racadio JM, Levitt MA, Bischoff A, Racadio JM, Peña A. Complex cloacal malformations: use of rotational fluoroscopy and 3D reconstruction in diagnosis and surgical planning. Pediatr Radiol. 2012;42:355–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Peña A. The surgical management of persistent cloaca: results in 54 patients treated with a posterior sagittal approach. J Pediatr Surg. 1989;24:590–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pena A. Total urogenital mobilization – an easier way to repair cloacas. J Pediatr Surg. 1997;32(2):263–7; discussion 267–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Soffer SZ, Rosen NG, Hong AR, Alexianu M, Pena A. Cloacal exstrophy: a unified management plan. J Pediatr Surg. 2000;35(6):932–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed H. Al-Salem
    • 1
  1. 1.Pediatric SurgeryAlSadik HospitalQatifSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations