Bladder Exstrophy-Epispadias Complex

  • Ahmed H. Al-Salem


Bladder exstrophy (also known as Ectopia vesicae) is a congenital anomaly that exists as part of the exstrophy-epispadias complex.


Bladder Neck Clean Intermittent Catheterization Pelvic Osteotomy Bladder Augmentation Bladder Exstrophy 
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Further Reading

  1. 1. 
    Baird AD, Gearhart JP, Mathews RI. Applications of the modified Cantwell-Ransley epispadias repair in the exstrophy-epispadias complex. J Pediatr Urol. 2005;1(5):331–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Frimberger D. Diagnosis and management of epispadias. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2011;20(2):85–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gearhart JP, Jeffs RD. The use of parenteral testosterone therapy in genital reconstructive surgery. J Urol. 1987;138(4):1077–8. Part 2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gearhart JP, Leonard MP, Burgers JK, Jeffs RD. The Cantwell-Ransley technique for repair of epispadias. J Urol. 1992;148(3):851–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gearhart JP, Mathews R. Penile reconstruction combined with bladder closure in the management of classic bladder exstrophy: illustration of technique. Urology. 2000;55(5):764–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gearhart JP, Mathews RI. Exstrophy-epispadias complex. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, Partin AW, Peters CA, editors. Campbell-walsh urology, vol. 4. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2012. p. 3325–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Grady RW, Mitchell ME. Complete primary repair of exstrophy. J Urol. 1999;162(4):1415–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grady RW, Mitchell ME. Management of epispadias. Urol Clin N Am. 2002;29(2):349–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Mathews R. Achieving urinary continence in cloacal exstrophy. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2011;20(2):126–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Mitchell ME. Bladder exstrophy repair: complete primary repair of exstrophy. Urology. 2005;65(1):5–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Mitchell ME, Bägli DJ. Complete penile disassembly for epispadias repair: the mitchell technique. J Urol. 1996;155(1):300–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mushtaq I, Garriboli M, Smeulders N, et al. Primary neonatal bladder exstrophy closure in neonates: challenging the traditions. J Urol. 2014;191(1):193–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Oesterling JE, Jeffs RD. The importance of a successful initial bladder closure in the surgical management of classical bladder exstrophy: analysis of 144 patients treated at the Johns Hopkins hospital between 1975 and 1985. J Urol. 1987;137(2):258–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schaeffer AJ, Stec AA, Purves JT, Cervellione RM, Nelson CP, Gearhart JP. Complete primary repair of bladder exstrophy: a single institution referral experience. J Urol. 2011;186(3):1041–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shnorhavorian M, Grady RW, Andersen A, Joyner BD, Mitchell ME. Long-term follow-up of complete primary repair of exstrophy: the seattle experience. J Urol. 2008;180(4, supplement):1615–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Suson KD, Preece J, Baradaran N, Di Carlo HN, Gearhart JP. The fate of the complete female epispadias and female exstrophy bladder—is there a difference? J Urol. 2013;190(4):1583–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zaontz MR, Steckler RE, Shortliffe LMD, Kogan BA, Baskin L, Tekgul S. Multicenter experience with the Mitchell technique for epispadias repair. J Urol. 1998;160(1):172–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed H. Al-Salem
    • 1
  1. 1.Pediatric SurgeryAlSadik HospitalQatifSaudi Arabia

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