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Electrical Manipulation and Sorting of Cells

  • Jaka Cemazar
  • Arindam Ghosh
  • Rafael V. DavalosEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Microsystems and Nanosystems book series (MICRONANO)

Abstract

Electric fields have been widely used to manipulate cells in microfluidic devices. The versatility and the ease of implementation and fabrication of electric field-based microfluidic systems have made them very popular for a whole host of different biomedical applications. In this chapter, various techniques that are commonly used for manipulating, characterizing, and separating cells in lab-on-a-chip devices and their applications are discussed. Starting from a description of the polarization of a cell and the forces that can act on it in an electric field, the theory that drives different electrokinetic phenomena and the application of these phenomena for on-chip cellular manipulation are herein reviewed. The models that are used to predict the responses of cells in electric fields, as well as techniques commonly used for the numerical modeling of various electrokinetic and electric field-based cellular manipulation techniques, are also detailed. Finally, the electrical modifications of cells in microfluidic devices, specifically electroporation and electrofusion, have been reviewed.

Keywords

Lab-on-a-chip Microfluidics Electrokinetics Dielectrophoresis Electrorotation AC electroosmosis Cell sorting Cell focusing Micro flow cytometer Electroporation Electrofusion Polarization Electric field Electric field gradient Electrical double layer Dipole Clausius–Mossotti factor Electrophoresis Induced charge electroosmosis Traveing wave dielectrophoresis Dielectrophoretic force Cell-to-cell interactions Transmembrane voltage Shell model Maxwell stress tensor Numerical methods Fluorescence-activated cell sorting Electrical impedance Cytometer Field flow fractionation Electrodes Tumor initiating cells Circulating tumor cells Immunocapture Joule heating Cell lysis Cell pairing Phenotype 

Abbreviations

DEP

Dielectrophoresis

twDEP

Traveling wave dielectrophoresis

ICEO

Induced charge electroosmosis

DEP-FFF

Dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation

iDEP

Insulator dielectrophoresis

cDEP

Contactless dielectrophoresis

EO

Electroosmosis

FACS

Fluorescence-activated cell sorting

LOC

Lab-on-a-chip

RBC

Red blood cells

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by NIH 5R21 CA173092-01.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaka Cemazar
    • 1
  • Arindam Ghosh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rafael V. Davalos
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Biomedical Engineering and SciencesVirginia Tech – Wake Forest UniversityBlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringVirginia TechBlacksburgUSA

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