Heart Failure: Epidemiology and Demographics

  • Karina M. Soto-Ruiz
Part of the Contemporary Cardiology book series (CONCARD)


Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome. It is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in patients 65 years or older, and this population also has the highest incidence and prevalence of heart failure. Heart failure is also likely to increase due to a number of demographic changes that include an aging population, improved survival after myocardial infarction, and improvement in the therapeutic armamentarium such as the use of beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, implantable defibrillators, etc. However, despite these advances, heart failure prognosis remains poor, with survival rate low and mortality rate elevated.


Heart failure Epidemiology Incidence Prevalence Ejection fraction Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction Mortality rate Risk factors Hospitalization rate 



Aging and body composition


American College of cardiology


Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors


American Heart Association


coronary heart disease


Ejection fraction


Glomerular filtration rate


Heart failure


Hospitalized Heart Failure


Implantable cardioverter defibrillator


Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organization


Length of Stay


Left ventricular hypertrophy


Modification of diet in renal disease


systolic blood pressure


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Emergency MedicineBaylor College of Medicine/Texas Children’s HospitalHoustonUSA

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