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Heart Failure: Epidemiology and Demographics

  • Karina M. Soto-Ruiz
Chapter
Part of the Contemporary Cardiology book series (CONCARD)

Abstract

Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome. It is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in patients 65 years or older, and this population also has the highest incidence and prevalence of heart failure. Heart failure is also likely to increase due to a number of demographic changes that include an aging population, improved survival after myocardial infarction, and improvement in the therapeutic armamentarium such as the use of beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, implantable defibrillators, etc. However, despite these advances, heart failure prognosis remains poor, with survival rate low and mortality rate elevated.

Keywords

Heart failure Epidemiology Incidence Prevalence Ejection fraction Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction Mortality rate Risk factors Hospitalization rate 

Abbreviations

ABC

Aging and body composition

ACC

American College of cardiology

ACEI

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors

AHA

American Heart Association

CHD

coronary heart disease

EF

Ejection fraction

GFR

Glomerular filtration rate

HF

Heart failure

HHF

Hospitalized Heart Failure

ICD

Implantable cardioverter defibrillator

JCAHO

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organization

LOS

Length of Stay

LVH

Left ventricular hypertrophy

MDRD

Modification of diet in renal disease

SBP

systolic blood pressure

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Emergency MedicineBaylor College of Medicine/Texas Children’s HospitalHoustonUSA

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