Turkey

Chapter

Abstract

Turkey has witnessed rapid urbanization over the past 30 years. Today, more than 77 % of the population lives in urban areas, compared to just 38 % in 1970 (TURKSTAT 2015). Urbanization was mostly fueled by rural-urban migration, which in turn was due to diminishing government investment and support for agriculture and an expectation that urban centers would provide better job opportunities. The population growth in certain urban areas has led to the formation of many so-called “metropolitan cities” which have a population in excess of 750,000 and are governed by a “greater city municipality.” Currently, 30 urban agglomerations are defined as metropolitan cities. Of these, Istanbul has a population of 14 million; Ankara five million; Izmir four million; Bursa almost three million; Antalya, Adana, and Konya just above two million; the remaining metropolitan cities range from 750,000 to 2 million.

References

  1. Alpkokin P, Ergun M (2012) Istanbul Metrobüs: first intercontinental bus rapid transit. J Transp Geogr 24:58–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alpkokin P, Kiremitci ST, Black JA, Cetinavci S (2015) LRT and street tram policies and implementation in Turkish cities. J Transp Geogr. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2015.10.004
  3. Babalık-Sutcliffe E (2013) Urban form and sustainable transport: lessons from the Ankara case. Int J Sustain Transp 7(5):416–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Babalik-Sutcliffe E (2015) Urban rail operators in Turkey: organisational reform in transit service provision and the impact on planning, operation and system performance. J Transp Geogr. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2015.08.008Google Scholar
  5. Babalik-Sutcliffe E, Cengiz EC (2015) Bus rapid transit system in Istanbul: a success story or flawed planning decision? Transp Rev 35(6):792–813. doi:10.1080/01441647.2015.1059381 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gerçek H, Demir O (2008) Urban mobility in Istanbul, final report. Plan Bleu. http://planbleu.org/sites/default/files/publications/istanbul_finalreport_full.pdf. Accessed 1 May 2015
  7. Greater Ankara Municipality (2007) Daily motorised trips modal split in Ankara in September 2007. Accessed Jan 2008Google Scholar
  8. Greater Ankara Municipality (2015) Daily motorised trips modal split in Ankara in March 2015. EGO. http://ego.gov.tr/tr/sayfa/61/istatistikler. Accessed 11 May 2015
  9. Greater Izmir Municipality (2007) Izmir urban transport master plan. Second phase final report, plan report prepared by the Greater Izmir Municipality.Google Scholar
  10. Greater Konya Municipality (2001) Bicycle transport development projects and the Konya bicycle plan, plan report prepared by Yüksel Proje & Ulaşım-Art.Google Scholar
  11. IETT (2014) Public transport in Istanbul. IETT. http://www.iett.gov.tr/tr/main/pages/istanbulda-toplu-tasima/95. Accessed 10 Jan 2015
  12. Ministry of Environment and Urbanism (2011) Republic of Turkey national climate change action plan 2011–2023.Google Scholar
  13. Ministry of Environment and Urbanism (2013) Turkey climate change 5th national communication, report prepared jointly by the Ministry of Environment and Urbanism and United nations Development Program (UNDP)Google Scholar
  14. Özbilen B (2015) Integration of paratransit mode dolmuş into the existing public transport network: Ankara example. In: Proceedings of the TRANSIST 2015 symposium, Istanbul, pp 649–660, 17–19 Dec 2015Google Scholar
  15. TURKSTAT (2015) Turkish Statistical Institute data. http://www.turkstat.gov.tr. Accessed 10 May 2015

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Middle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations