The Urban Transport Crisis in Emerging Economies

Part of the series The Urban Book Series pp 247-266



  • Ela Babalık-SutcliffeAffiliated withMiddle East Technical University Email author 

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


Turkey has witnessed rapid urbanization over the past 30 years. Today, more than 77 % of the population lives in urban areas, compared to just 38 % in 1970 (TURKSTAT 2015). Urbanization was mostly fueled by rural-urban migration, which in turn was due to diminishing government investment and support for agriculture and an expectation that urban centers would provide better job opportunities. The population growth in certain urban areas has led to the formation of many so-called “metropolitan cities” which have a population in excess of 750,000 and are governed by a “greater city municipality.” Currently, 30 urban agglomerations are defined as metropolitan cities. Of these, Istanbul has a population of 14 million; Ankara five million; Izmir four million; Bursa almost three million; Antalya, Adana, and Konya just above two million; the remaining metropolitan cities range from 750,000 to 2 million.