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Policy and Human Rights Implications of Women’s Poverty and Vulnerability in the USA

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Poverty in the United States

Abstract

Health disparities are extreme for HIV infection among women in the USA. The risk of African-American women is manyfold higher than Latina women whose risk, in turn, is higher than for white women. The complex matrix of the context for these disparities is what we seek to summarize very briefly in this chapter, reflecting the theme of the book as a whole. Women of color, especially those living in low-resource neighborhoods with high background HIV prevalence, have been affected by the high incarceration rates of men of color; illicit drug trade; dearth of jobs; marginal infrastructure for day care, schools, and transportation; and high crime rates. Women who have a drug addiction may sell sex to support it. Even women without notable personal risk factors may contract HIV simply due to the risk behaviors of their husbands or partners. The challenges in confronting the HIV epidemic include not merely personal risk reduction such as condom use, partner selection, reduced partner number, or use of preexposure prophylaxis, but also the neighborhood and societal context that increase women’s probability of encountering HIV.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    HPTN is not the only HIV/AIDS network supported by the NIH. Other NIH networks support HIV/AIDS research in other areas: AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG); International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials (INSIGHT); International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT); HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN); Microbicide Trials Network (MTN); Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN); AIDS Malignancy Consortium (AMC); International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA); and others. Beyond the NIH, other US agencies like the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and international organizations support other networks for analogous research purposes.

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Correspondence to Sten H. Vermund .

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Vermund, S.H., El-Sadr, W., del Rio, C., Wingood, G.M. (2017). Policy and Human Rights Implications of Women’s Poverty and Vulnerability in the USA. In: O'Leary, A., Frew, P. (eds) Poverty in the United States. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-43833-7_13

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-43833-7_13

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