Advertisement

Techniques and Devices

  • Francesco BedogniEmail author
  • Mauro Agnifili
  • Luca Testa
Chapter

Abstract

The first transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) was performed by Cribier and colleagues in 2002 in a compassionate case of inoperable patient admitted for cardiogenic shock as a consequence of severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis [1]. Thereafter, after a long period of technical development and animal studies, a large amount of literature reported promising results that confirmed the feasibility of TAVR [2–9]. Since commencing of its clinical application, about 100,000 transcatheter valves have been implanted worldwide, and the rate of implants is sharply increasing. The results of several large multicenter registries [10–18], and the prospective randomized trials [19–22], consistently showed that this treatment can be reasonably considered the standard of care for high or prohibitive surgical risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. The recently published randomized CoreValve US High-Risk Pivotal Trial [22] was the first to demonstrate a significantly higher rate of survival at 1 year with TAVR compared with SAVR in high-risk patients. More recent publications [23–25] have shown by means of propensity score matching no difference in terms of mortality even in lower-risk patients. These groundbreaking results achieved in the last decade are a consequence of the progressive technological improvement of the devices and of operator’s experience. The size of the valves and delivery systems decreased from very large size, 24–25 Fr of the initial devices to the current 14–18 Fr, thus increasing the deliverability through the femoral route and reducing the access complication rate. The accurate sizing and procedure planning obtained with the routine use of CT scan allowed the physicians to choose the optimal approach and to minimize the paravalvular leaks that still remains the major Achilles heel of this procedure. The objective of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive review on technical and procedural aspects of TAVR, to discuss acute and late outcomes, and to highlight the current expectations and potential future development of this rapidly evolving technology.

Keywords

Aortic Valve Aortic Regurgitation Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Aortic Annulus Paravalvular Leak 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Cribier A, Eltchaninoff H, Bash A, et al. Percutaneous transcatheter implantation of an aortic valve prosthesis for calcific aortic stenosis: first human case description. Circulation. 2002;106:3006–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cribier A, Eltchaninoff H, Tron C, et al. Early experience with percutaneous transcatheter implantation of heart valve prosthesis for the treatment of end-stage inoperable patients with calcific aortic stenosis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43:698–703.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Webb JG, Pasupati S, Humphries K, et al. Percutaneous transarterial aortic valve replacement in selected high-risk patients with aortic stenosis. Circulation. 2007;116:755–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lichtenstein SV, Cheung A, Ye J, et al. Transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation in humans: initial clinical experience. Circulation. 2006;114:591–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Simon P, Dewey T, Wimmer-Greinecker G, et al. Transapical minimally invasive aortic valve implantation: multicenter experience. Circulation. 2007;116(11 Suppl):I240–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Walther T, Kasimir MT, Doss M, et al. One-year interim follow-up results of the TRAVERCE trial: the initial feasibility study for trans-apical aortic-valve implantation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2011;39:532–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rode’s-Cabau J, Dumont E, De LaRochellie`re R, et al. Feasibility and initial results of percutaneous aortic valve implantation including selection of the transfemoral or transapical approach in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Am J Cardiol. 2008;102:1240–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kodali SK, O’Neill WW, Moses JW, et al. Early and late (one year) outcomes following transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with severe aortic stenosis (from the United States REVIVAL trial). Am J Cardiol. 2011;107:1058–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grube E, Schuler G, Buellesfeld L, et al. Percutaneous aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis in high-risk patients using the second- and current third-generation self-expanding core valve prosthesis: device success and 30-day clinical outcome. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50:69–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rode’s-Cabau J, Webb JG, Cheung A, et al. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation for the treatment of severe symptomatic aortic stenosis in patients at very high or prohibitive surgical risk: acute and late outcomes of the multicenter Canadian experience. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55:1080–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Thomas M, Schymik G, Walther T, et al. One-year outcomes of cohort 1 in the Edwards SAPIEN aortic bioprosthesis European outcome (SOURCE) registry: the European registry of transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the Edwards SAPIEN valve. Circulation. 2011;124:425–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Piazza N, Grube E, Gerckens U, et al. Procedural and 30-day outcomes following transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the third generation (18 Fr) corevalve revalving system: results from the multicentre, expanded evaluation registry 1-year following CE mark approval. EuroIntervention. 2008;4:242–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tamburino C, Capodanno D, Ramondo A, et al. Incidence and predictors of early and late mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in 663 patients with severe aortic stenosis. Circulation. 2011;123:299–308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eltchaninoff H, Prat A, Gilard M, FRANCE Registry Investigators, et al. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: early results of the FRANCE (FRench Aortic National CoreValve and Edwards) registry. Eur Heart J. 2011;32:191–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zahn R, Gerckens U, Grube E, et al. German transcatheter aortic valve interventions-registry investigators. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: first results from a multi-centre real-world registry. Eur Heart J. 2011;32:198–204.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bosmans JM, Kefer J, De Bruyne B, Belgian TAVI Registry Participants, et al. Procedural, 30-day and one year outcome following core valve or Edwards transcatheter aortic valve implantation: result of the Belgian national Registry. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surgery. 2011;12:762–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moat NE, Ludman P, de Belder MA, et al. Long-term outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis: the U.K. TAVI (United Kingdom transcatheter aortic valve implantation) registry. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58:2130.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Linke A, Wenaweser P, Gerckens U, Tamburino C, Bosmans J, Bleiziffer S, Blackman D, Schäfer U, Müller R, Sievert H, Søndergaard L, Klugmann S, Hoffmann R, Tchétché D, Colombo A, Legrand VM, Bedogni F, LePrince P, Schuler G, Mazzitelli D, Eftychiou C, Frerker C, Boekstegers P, Windecker S, Mohr FW, Woitek F, Lange R, Bauernschmitt R, Brecker S, ADVANCE study Investigators. Treatment of aortic stenosis with a self-expanding transcatheter valve: the international multi-centre ADVANCE study. Eur Heart J. 2014;35(38):2672–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Leon MB, Smith CR, Mack M, PARTNER Trial Investigators, et al. Transcatheter aortic-valve implantation for aortic stenosis in patients who cannot undergo surgery. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:1597–607.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Smith CR, Leon MB, Mack MJ, et al. Transcatheter versus surgical aortic-valve replacement in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:2187–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Popma JJ, et al. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement using a self expanding bioprosthesis in patients with severe aortic stenosis in extreme risk for surgery. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63(19):1972–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Adams DH, Popma JJ, Reardon MJ, et al. The U.S. corevalve clinical investigators. transcatheter aortic-valve replacement with a self-expanding prosthesis. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:1790–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Latib A, Maisano F, Bertoldi L, et al. Transcatheter vs surgical aortic valve replacement in intermediate surgical risk patients with aortic valve stenosis: a propensity score matched case-control study. Am Heart J. 2012;164:910–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Piazza N, Kalesan B, van Mieghen N. A 3 center comparison of 1 year mortality outcomes between transcatheter aortic valve implantation and surgical aortic valve replacement on the basis of propensity score matching among intermediate risk patients. J Am Coll Cardiol Intv. 2013;6(5):443–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    D’Errigo P, Barbanti M, Santini F, et al. Risultati dello studio OBSERVANT. Caratteristiche cliniche e risultati a breve termine nella popolazione arruolata sottoposta a sostituzione valvolare aortica (Transcatetere vs Chirurgica). G Ital Cardiol. 2014;15(3):177–84.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    AC, Delgado V, van der Kley F, et al. Comparison of aortic root dimensions and geometries before and after transcatheter aortic valve implantation by 2- and 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography and multislice computed tomography. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010;3:94–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kahlert P, Al-Rashid F, Plicht B, et al. Suture-mediated arterial access site closure after transfemoral aortic valve implantation. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2013;8:E139–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Messika-Zeitoun D, Serfaty JM, Brochet E, et al. Multimodal assessment of the aortic annulus diameter: implications for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55:186–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Koos R, Altiok E, Mahnken AH, et al. Evaluation of aortic root for definition of prosthesis size by magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac computed tomography: implications for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Int J Cardiol. 2012;158:353–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tzikas A, Schultz CJ, Piazza N, et al. Assessment of the aortic annulus by multislice computed tomography, contrast aortography, and trans-thoracic echocardiography in patients referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2011;77:868–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schultz CJ, Moelker A, Piazza N, et al. Three dimensional evaluation of the aortic annulus using multislice computer tomography: are manufacturer’s guidelines for sizing for percutaneous aortic valve replacement helpful? Eur Heart J. 2010;31:849–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gasparetto V, Fraccaro C, Tarantini G, et al. Safety and effectiveness of a selective strategy for coronary artery revascularization before transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2013;81:376–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Abdel-Wahab M, Mostafa AE, Geist V, et al. Comparison of outcomes in patients having isolated transcatheter aortic valve implantation versus combined with preprocedural percutaneous coronary intervention. Am J Cardiol. 2012;109:581–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dvir D, Jhaveri R, Pichard AD. The minimalist approach for transcatheter aortic valve replacement in high-risk patients. J Am Coll Cardiol Intv. 2012;5(5):468–9. doi: 10.1016/j.jcin.2012.01.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Toggweiler S, et al. Percutaneous aortic valve replacement. Vascular outcomes with a fully percutaneous procedure. Jam Coll Cardiol. 2012;59:113–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ussia GP, Barbanti M, Petronio AS, CoreValve Italian Registry Investigators, et al. 3-year outcomes of self-expanding corevalve prosthesis. Eur Heart J. 2012;33:969–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hayashida K, et al. True percutaneous approach for transfemoral aortic valve implantation using the prostar XL device. Impact of learning curve on vascular complications. J Am Coll Cardiol Intv. 2012;5:207–2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Alli O, et al. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Assessing the learning curve. J Am Coll Cardiol Intv. 2012;5:72–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Genereux P, Kodaly S, Leon MB, et al. Clinical outcomes using a new crossover balloon occlusion technique for percutaneous closure after transfemoral aortic valve implantation. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2011;4:861–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gurvitch, et al. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: lesson from the learning curve of the first 270 high-risk patients. Catheter Cardiovasc Inter. 2011;78:977–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rode’s-Cabau J, Gutie’rrez M, Bagur R, et al. Incidence, predictive factors, and prognostic value of myocardial injury following uncomplicated transcatheter aortic valve implantation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57:1988–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Schymik G, Würth A, Bramlage P, et al. Long-term results of transapical versus transfemoral TAVI in a real world population of 1000 patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2015;8:e000761.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Latsios G, Gerckens U, Grube E. Transaortic transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a novel approach for the truly “no-access option” patients. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2010;75:1129–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Petronio AS, De Carlo M, Bedogni F, et al. Safety and efficacy of the subclavian approach for transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the CoreValve revalving system. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2010;3:359–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Testa L, Brambilla N, Laudisa ML, et al. Right subclavian approach as a feasible alternative for transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the CoreValve ReValving system. EuroIntervention. 2012;8(6):685–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Scha¨fer U, Ho Y, Frerker C, et al. Direct percutaneous access technique for transaxillary transcatheter aortic valve implantation: “the Hamburg Sankt Georg approach”. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2012;5:477–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    DeRobertis F, Asgar A, Davies S, et al. The left axillary artery – a new approach for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2009;36:807–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Guyton RA, Block PC, Thourani VH, Lerakis S, Babaliaros V. Carotid artery access for transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2013;82(4):E583–6. doi: 10.1002/ccd.24596. Epub 2013 Mar 28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Grube E, Naber C, Abizaid A, et al. Feasibility of transcatheter aortic valve implantation without balloon pre-dilation: a pilot study. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2011;4:751–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Garcia E, Almer’ıa C, Unzue’ L, et al. Transfemoral implantation of Edwards Sapien XT aortic valve without previous valvuloplasty: role of 2D/3D transesophageal echocardiography. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2014;84:868–76. Epub ahead of print.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Webb J, Cribier A. Percutaneous transarterial aortic valve implantation: what do we know? Eur Heart J. 2011;32:140–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Abdel-Wahab M, Mehilli J, Frerker C, CHOICE investigators, et al. Comparison of balloon-expandable vs self-expandable valves in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement: the CHOICE randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014;311:1503–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Toggweiler S, Humphries KH, Lee M, et al. 5-year outcome after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;61:413–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Barbanti M, Petronio AS, Ettori F, Latib A, Bedogni F, De Marco F, Poli A, Carla Boschetti M, De Carlo M, Fiorina C, Colombo A, Brambilla N, Bruschi G, Martina P, Pandolfi C, Giannini C, Curello S, Sgroi C, Gulino S, Patanè M, Ohno Y, Tamburino C, Attizzani GF, Immè S, Gentili A. 5-year outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with CoreValve prosthesis. J Am Coll Cardiol Intv. 2015;8:1084–91. E pub Ahead to print.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Detaint D, Lepage L, Himbert D, et al. Determinants of significant paravalvular regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve: implantation impact of device and annulus discongruence. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2009;2:821–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Abdel-Wahab M, Zahn R, Horack M, et al. Aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: incidence and early outcome. Results from the German transcatheter aortic valve interventions registry. Heart. 2011;97:899–906.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sinning JM, Hammerstingl C, Vasa-Nicotera M, et al. Aortic regurgitation index defines severity of peri-prosthetic regurgitation and predicts outcome in patients after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59:1134–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sponga S, Perron J, Dagenais F, et al. Impact of residual regurgitation after aortic valve replacement. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2012;42:486–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sherif MA, Abdel-Wahab M, Stocker B, et al. Anatomic and procedural predictors of paravalvular aortic regurgitation after implantation of the medtronic corevalve bioprosthesis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56:1623–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Takagi K, Latib A, Al-Lamee R, et al. Predictors of moderate-to-severe paravalvular aortic regurgitation immediately after CoreValve implantation and the impact of postdilatation. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2011;78:432–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ussia GP, Barbanti M, Tamburino C. Consequences of underexpansion of a percutaneous aortic valve bioprosthesis. J Invasive Cardiol. 2010;22:E86–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kodali SK, Williams MR, Smith CR, et al. Two-year outcomes after transcatheter or surgical aortic-valve replacement. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:1686–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sellers RD, Levy MJ, Amplatz K, Lillehei CW. Left retrograde cardioangiography in acquired cardiac disease: technic, indications, and interpretations in 700 cases. Am J Cardiol. 1964;14:437–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ewe SH, Ng AC, Schuijf JD, et al. Location and severity of aortic valve calcium and implications for aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Am J Cardiol. 2011;108:1470–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Colli A, D’Amico R, Kempfert J, et al. Transesophageal echocardiographic scoring for transcatheter aortic valve implantation: impact of aortic cusp calcification on postoperative aortic regurgitation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011;142:1229–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Haensig M, Lehmkuhl L, Rastan AJ, et al. Aortic valve calcium scoring is a predictor of significant paravalvular aortic insufficiency in transapical-aortic valve implantation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2012;41:1234–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Koos R, Mahnken AH, Dohmen G, et al. Association of aortic valve calcification severity with the degree of aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Int J Cardiol. 2011;150:142–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Yared K, Garcia-Camarero T, Fernandez-Friera L, et al. Impact of aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: results from the REVIVAL trial. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012;5:469–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Unbehaun A, Pasic M, Dreysse S, et al. Transapical aortic valve implantation: incidence and predictors of paravalvular leakage and transvalvular regurgitation in a series of 358 patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59:211–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wong DT, Bertaso AG, Liew GY, et al. Relationship of aortic annular eccentricity and paravalvular regurgitation post transcatheter aortic valve implantation with CoreValve. J Invasive Cardiol. 2013;25:190–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Buzzatti N, Maisano F, Latib A, et al. Computed tomography-based evaluation of aortic annulus, prosthesis size and impact on early residual aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2013;43:43–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Schultz CJ, Tzikas A, Moelker A, et al. Correlates on MSCT of paravalvular aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the medtronic CoreValve prosthesis. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2011;78:446–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Block PC. Leaks and the “great ship” TAVI. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2010;75:873–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Genereux P, Head SJ, Hahn R, et al. Paravalvular leak after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: the new Achilles’ heel? A comprehensive review of the literature. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;61:1125.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Houthuizen P, Van Garsse LAFM, Poels TT, de Jaegere P, van der Boon RMA, Swinkels BM, et al. Left bundle-branch block induced by trans-catheter aortic valve implantation increases risk of death. Circulation. 2012;126(6):720–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Urena M, Mok M, Serra V, Dumont E, Nombela-Franco L, DeLarochellière R, et al. Predictive factors and long-term clinical consequences of persistent left bundle branch block following trans-catheter aortic valve implantation with a balloon-expandable valve. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60(18):1743–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Testa L, Latib A, De Marco F, De Carlo M, Agnifili M, Latini RA, et al. Clinical impact of persistent left bundle-branch block after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with CoreValve revalving system. Circulation. 2013;127(12):1300–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    van der Boon RM, Nuis R-J, Van Mieghem NM, Jordaens L, Rodés-Cabau J, van Domburg RT, et al. New conduction abnormalities after TAVI–frequency and causes. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2012;9(8):454–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sinhal A, Altwegg L, Pasupati S, Humphries KH, Allard M, Martin P, et al. Atrioventricular block after transcatheter balloon expandable aortic valve implantation. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2008;1(3):305–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Jilaihawi H, Chin D, Vasa-Nicotera M, Jeilan M, Spyt T, Ng GA, et al. Predictors for permanent pacemaker requirement after trans-catheter aortic valve implantation with the CoreValve bioprosthesis. Am Heart J. 2009;157(5):860–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Van der Boon RMA, Van Mieghem NM, Theuns DA, Nuis R-J, Nauta ST, Serruys PW, et al. Pacemaker dependency after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the self-expanding medtronic CoreValve system. Int J Cardiol. 2013;168(2):1269.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Simms AD, Hogarth AJ, Hudson EA, Worsnop VL, Blackman DJ, O’Regan DJ, et al. Ongoing requirement for pacing post-transcatheter aortic valve implantation and surgical aortic valve replacement. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2013;17(2):328–33.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Pereira E, Ferreira N, Caeiro D, Primo J, Adão L, Oliveira M, et al. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation and requirements of pacing over time. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2013;36(5):559–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    van der Boon RM, Houthuizen P, Nuis RJ, van Mieghem NM, Prinzen F, de Jaegere PP. Clinical implications of conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2014;16(1):429.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Généreux P, Head SJ, Van Mieghem NM, et al. Clinical outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement using valve academic research consortium definitions: a weighted meta-analysis of 3,519 patients from 16 studies. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59:2317–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Mastoris I, Schoos MM, Dangas GD, Mehran R. Stroke after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: incidence, risk factors, prognosis, and preventive strategies. Clin Cardiol. 2014;12:756–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Khatri PJ, Webb JG, Rod’es-Cabau J, et al. Adverse effects associated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a meta-analysis of contemporary studies. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158:35–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Holmes Jr DR, Mack MJ, Kaul S, et al. 2012 ACCF/AATS/SCAI/STS expert consensus document on transcatheter aortic valve replacement. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59:1200–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Vahanian A, Alfieri O, Andreotti F, et al. Guidelines on the management of valvular heart disease (version 2012): the joint task force on the management of valvular heart disease of the European society of cardiology (ESC) and the European association for cardio-thoracic surgery (EACTS). Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2012;42:S1–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Webb J, Rod’es-Cabau J, Fremes S, et al. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a Canadian cardiovascular Society position statement. Can J Cardiol. 2012;28:520–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Barbanti M, Yang TH, Rodes Cabau J, et al. Anatomical and procedural features associated with aortic root rupture during balloon expandable transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Circulation. 2013;128:244–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Dvir D, Webb JG, Bleiziffer S, Pasic M, Waksman R, Kodali S, Barbanti M, Latib A, Schaefer U, Rodés-Cabau J, Treede H, Piazza N, Hildick-Smith D, Himbert D, Walther T, Hengstenberg C, Nissen H, Bekeredjian R, Presbitero P, Ferrari E, Segev A, de Weger A, Windecker S, Moat NE, Napodano M, Wilbring M, Cerillo AG, Brecker S, Tchetche D, Lefèvre T, De Marco F, Fiorina C, Petronio AS, Teles RC, Testa L, Laborde JC, Leon MB, Kornowski R. Valve-in-valve international data registry investigators. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in failed bioprosthetic surgical valves. JAMA. 2014;312(2):162–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Bedogni F, Laudisa ML, Pizzocri S, Tamburino C, Ussia GP, Petronio AS, Napodano M, Ramondo A, Presbitero P, Ettori F, Santoro G, Klugman S, De Marco F, Brambilla N, Testa L. Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation using Corevalve Revalving System for failed surgical aortic bioprostheses. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2011;11:1228–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Roy DA, Schaefer U, Guetta V, Hildick-Smith D, Möllmann H, Dumonteil N, Modine T, Bosmans J, Petronio AS, Moat N, Linke A, Moris C, Champagnac D, Parma R, Ochala A, Medvedofsky D, Patterson T, Woitek F, Jahangiri M, Laborde JC, Brecker SJ. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation for pure severe native aortic valve regurgitation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;61(15):1577–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Testa L, Latib A, Rossi ML, De Marco F, De Carlo M, Fiorina C, Oreglia J, Petronio AS, Ettori F, De Servi S, Klugmann S, Ussia GP, Tamburino C, Panisi P, Brambilla N, Colombo A, Presbitero P, Bedogni F. CoreValve implantation for severe aortic regurgitation: a multicentre registry. EuroIntervention. 2014;10(6):739–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IRCCS Policlinico San DonatoMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations