CONTROLO 2016 pp 299-310 | Cite as

Sensorless Nonlinear Control of Fed-Batch \(Escherichia\,coli\) Cultivation Bioprocess Using the State-Dependent Approach

  • Abdelhamid Iratni
  • Rui Araújo
  • Saeid Rastegar
  • Mohammed Mostefai
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 402)


The cultivation of Escherichia coli bacteria is widely used by geneticists and biopharmaceuticals to produce medicines and vaccines. In such industries, Bioprocesses are known by their harsh environment and very expensive physical sensors. This paper deals with nonlinear estimation and control of fed-batch Escherichia coli bioprocess. Enhancing the process performance and maximizing its efficiency by optimizing the control of Escherichia coli cultures depends on the availability of appropriate online sensors for the main culture components. In this study, an innovative method for nonlinear estimation and control of bioprocesses is designed and assessed. The new algorithm for control and estimation of Escherichia coli bioprocess states, based on the State-Dependent Riccati Equation technique, is validated by numerical simulation. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique for Biosystems in measuring, monitoring, and control of their natural nonlinear dynamics.


Nonlinear estimation Nonlinear control E. coli bioprocess State-Dependent Riccati Equation Extended Kalman filter 



A. Iratni was supported by the European Commission in the framework of the Erasmus Mundus - Al Idrisi II programme. S. Rastegar was supported by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) under grant SFRH/BD/89186/2012. The authors acknowledge the support of FCT project UID/EEA/00048/2013.


  1. 1.
    Hafidi, G., Tebbani, S., Dumur, D., Wouwer, A.V.: Nonlinear model predictive control applied to E. coli cultures. In: Proceedings of 17th World Congress the International Federation of Automatic Control. IFAC-WC 2008, pp. 14570–14575, 6–11 Jul 2008Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ko, C.L., Wang, F.S.: On-line estimation of biomass and intracellular protein for recombinant Escherichia coli cultivated in batch and fed-batch modes. J. Chin. Inst. Chem. Eng. 38(3–4), May–July 2007Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Veloso, A.C.A., Rocha, I., Ferreira, E.C.: Monitoring of fed-batch E. coli fermentations with software sensors. Bioprocess Biosyst. Eng. 32(3), 381–388 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dewasme, L., Goffaux, G., Hantson, A.L., Wouwer, A.V.: Nonlinear model predictive control applied to E. coli cultures. In: Proceedings 18th World Congress the International Federation of Automatic Control. IFAC-WC 2011, pp. 6218–6223, 28 Aug–2 Sept 2011Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Åkesson, M.: Probing Control of glucose feeding in Escherichia coli cultivations. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Automatic Control, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden (1999)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Diaz, C., Dieu, P., Feuillerat, C., Lelong, P., Salome, M.: Adaptive predictive control of dissolved oxygen concentration in a laboratory-scale bioreactor. J. Biotechnol. 43(1), 21–32 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Diaz, C., Dieu, P., Feuillerat, C., Lelong, P., Salomé, M.: Simultaneous adaptive predictive control of the partial pressures of dissolved oxygen (pO 2) and dissolved carbon dioxide (pCO 2) in a laboratory-scale bioreactor. J. Biotechnol. 52(2), 135–150 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jenzsch, M., Simutis, R., Luebbert, A.: Generic model control of the specific growth rate in recombinant escherichia coli cultivations. J. Biotechnol. 122(4), 483–493 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bastin, G., Dochain, D.: On-line Estimation and Adaptive Control of Bioreactors. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Holland (1990)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rocha, I.C.A.P.: Model-based strategies for computer-aided operation of a recombinant E. Coli fermentation. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Biological Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal (2003)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Çimen, T.: Systematic and effective design of nonlinear feedback controllers via the state-dependent riccati equation (SDRE) method. Ann. Rev. Control 34(1), Apr 2010Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hafidi, G.: Application de la Commande Prédictive Non-linéaire à la Commande de Culture de Bactéries Escherichia Coli. Ph.D. thesis, Faculté des Sciences d’Orsay, Supélec, Université Paris-Sud 11, Paris, France (2008). (in French)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Maybeck, P.S.: Stochastic Models, Estimation, and Control, vols. 1–3. Academic Press, New York, NY, USA (1982)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Iratni, A., Katebi, R., Mostefai, M.: On-line robust nonlinear state estimators for nonlinear bioprocess systems. Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 14(4), 1739–1752 (2012)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mracek, C.P., Clontier, J.R., D’Souza, C.A.: A new technique for nonlinear estimation. In: Proceedings 1996 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications. ICCA 96, pp. 338–343 (1996)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Iratni, A., Katebi, R., Vilanova, R., Mostefai, M.: On estimation of unknown state variables in wastewater systems. In: Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation. ETFA 2009, pp. 1–6, 22–26 Sept 2009Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Banks, H.T., Lewis, B.M., Tran, H.T.: Nonlinear feedback controllers and compensators: a state-dependent Riccati equation approach. Comput. Optim. Appl. 37(2), 177–218 (2007)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cloutier, J.R., D’Souza, C.N., Mracek, C.P.: Nonlinear regulation and nonlinear \(H_\infty \) control via the state-dependent riccati equation technique; part 1: theory; part 2: examples. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Nonlinear Problems in Aviation and Aerospace. ICNPAA 96, pp. 1–20, 9–11 May 1996Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdelhamid Iratni
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rui Araújo
    • 2
  • Saeid Rastegar
    • 2
  • Mohammed Mostefai
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Science and Technology, Electrical Engineering DepartmentUniversity of Bordj Bou ArreridjEl AnasserAlgeria
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringInstitute for Systems and Robotics, University of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  3. 3.Automatic Control Laboratory of Setif, Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of TechnologyUniversity of Setif1SétifAlgeria

Personalised recommendations