Advertisement

Spinal Vascular Anatomy with Variations

  • Yi Jonathan Zhang
  • Sean Barber
Chapter

Abstract

The primitive neuraxis achieves nutrient and waste exchange via simple diffusion. Starting at approximately 4 weeks of gestation, with neural tube closure and acceleration of neural development, increasing metabolic demand exhausts diffusion capacity and stimulates formation of transverse metameric segmental (radiculomedullary) arteries that perfuse the developing spinal cord and nerve roots. These segmental vessels originate from the paired primitive dorsal and ventral aortae.

Keywords

Segmental Artery Arterial Supply Venous Anatomy Anterior Spinal Artery Lumbar Vein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Santillan A, Nacarino V, Greenberg E, Riina HA, Gobin YP, Patsalides A. Vascular anatomy of the spinal cord. J Neurointerv Surg. 2012;4(1):67–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Piscol K. Blood supply of the spinal cord and its clinical importance. Schriftenr Neurol. 1972;8:1–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brockstein B, Johns L, Gewertz BL. Blood supply to the spinal cord: anatomic and physiologic correlations. Ann Vasc Surg. 1994;8(4):394–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Thron A. Vascular anatomy of the spinal cord: neuroradiological investigations and clinical syndromes. New York/Wien: Springer; 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ak T. Vascular anatomy of the spinal cord. Neuroradiological investigations and clinical syndromes. New York/Wien: Springer; 1988.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Charles YP, Barbe B, Beaujeux R, Boujan F, Steib JP. Relevance of the anatomical location of the Adamkiewicz artery in spine surgery. Surg Radiol Anat. 2011;33(1):3–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hong MK, Hong MK, Pan WR, Wallace D, Ashton MW, Taylor GI. The angiosome territories of the spinal cord: exploring the issue of preoperative spinal angiography. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg Spine. 2008;8(4):352–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hyodoh H, Shirase R, Akiba H, et al. Double-subtraction maximum intensity projection MR angiography for detecting the artery of Adamkiewicz and differentiating it from the drainage vein. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2007;26(2):359–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Koshino T, Murakami G, Morishita K, Mawatari T, Abe T. Does the Adamkiewicz artery originate from the larger segmental arteries? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1999;117(5):898–905.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Griessenauer CJ, Raborn J, Foreman P, Shoja MM, Loukas M, Tubbs RS. Venous drainage of the spine and spinal cord: a comprehensive review of its history, embryology, anatomy, physiology, and pathology. Clin Anat. 2015;28(1):75–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moes P, Maillot C. Superficial veins of the human spinal cord. An attempt at classification. Arch Anat Histol Embryol. 1981;64:5–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lasjaunias P, Berenstein A. Spinal and spinal cord arteries and veins. In: Surgical neuroangiography: functional vascular anatomy of brain, spinal cord and spine. New York/Wien: Springer; 1990.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gillilan LA. Veins of the spinal cord. Anatomic details; suggested clinical applications. Neurology. 1970;20(9):860–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jinkins J. Spinal vasculature. In: John J, Brown B, Seigafuse S, Palumbo R, editors. Atlas of neuroradiologic embryology, anatomy, and variants. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2000.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Batson OV. The function of the vertebral veins and their role in the spread of metastases. Ann Surg. 1940;112(1):138–49.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Maccauro G, Spinelli MS, Mauro S, Perisano C, Graci C, Rosa MA. Physiopathology of spine metastasis. Int J Surg Oncol. 2011;2011:107969.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Groen RJ, Groenewegen HJ, van Alphen HA, Hoogland PV. Morphology of the human internal vertebral venous plexus: a cadaver study after intravenous Araldite CY 221 injection. Anat Rec. 1997;249(2):285–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Louis R, Ouiminga RM, Obounou D. The azygos or vertebro-parietal venous anastomotic system. Bull Assoc Anat (Nancy). 1976;60(169):381–97.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Coman DR, de Long LR. The role of the vertebral venous system in the metastasis of cancer to the spinal column; experiments with tumor-cell suspensions in rats and rabbits. Cancer. 1951;4(3):610–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Geldof AA. Models for cancer skeletal metastasis: a reappraisal of Batson’s plexus. Anticancer Res. 1997;17(3A):1535–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mathew P, Fleming D, Adegboyega PA. Myelophthisis as a solitary manifestation of failure from rectal carcinoma. A Batson phenomenon? Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2000;124(8):1228–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Onec B, Oksuzoglu B, Hatipoglu HG, Onec K, Azak A, Zengin N. Cavernous sinus syndrome caused by metastatic colon carcinoma. Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2007;6(8):593–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Boaz K, Natarajan S. Have we forgotten the Batson plexus? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;70(1):4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryMethodist Neurological InstituteHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations