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Pediatric Moyamoya Disease: Indirect Revascularization

  • Mario K. Teo
  • Jeremiah N. Johnson
  • Gary K. Steinberg
Chapter

Abstract

Moyamoya disease (MMD) is an idiopathic, chronic, occlusive cerebrovascular disease that involves bilateral stenosis or occlusion of the terminal internal carotid or proximal middle and anterior cerebral arteries. Development of basal collateral channels, including hypertrophy of the lenticulostriate and thalamoperforating arteries, results in characteristic “moyamoya vessels.” It is from the angiographic appearance of these vessels that the name moyamoya is derived, meaning “haziness” or “puff of smoke” in Japanese [1, 2]. Patients with moyamoya syndrome (MMS) present with identical clinical and angiographic features as those with MMD, but have an underlying associated condition, such as Down’s syndrome, neurofibromatosis, sickle cell disease, primordial dwarfism, or previous cranial irradiation [3].

Keywords

Moyamoya disease Indirect bypass EDAS EMS EGPS Omental transposition 

Abbreviations

ACA

Anterior cerebral artery

CBF

Cerebral blood flow

CCA

Common carotid artery

CVRC

Cerebrovascular reserve capacity

DSA

Digital subtraction angiography

DWI + ve

Diffusion Weighted Image positive

ECA

External carotid artery

EDAMS

EncephaloDuroArterioMyoSynangiosis

EDAS

EncephaloDuroArterioSynangiosis

EGPS

EncephaloGaleoPeriosteoSynangiosis

EEG

Electroencephalography

EMAS

EncephaloMyoArterioSynangiosis

EMS

EncephaloMyoSynangiosis

ICA

Internal carotid artery

MCA

Middle cerebral artery

MMA

Middle meningeal artery

MMD

Moyamoya disease

MMS

Moyamoya syndrome

MBH

Multiple burr holes

MR

Magnetic resonance

OA

Occipital artery

PCA

Posterior cerebral artery

SPECT

Single photon emission computed tomography

STA

Superficial temporal artery

TIA

Transient ischemia attack

Xe-CT

Xenon-enhanced computed tomography

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario K. Teo
    • 1
  • Jeremiah N. Johnson
    • 1
  • Gary K. Steinberg
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Department of Neurosurgery, R281Stanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA

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