Advertisement

Ecosystem-Based Approaches Toward a Resilient Society in Harmony with Nature

Chapter
Part of the Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research book series (NTHR, volume 42)

Abstract

Ecosystem-based approaches have proven effective and efficient in reducing disaster risks while ensuring continued benefits to people from ecosystem services. In this article, a new concept of Ecosystem-based Disaster Risk Reduction (Eco-DRR) for enhancing social-ecological resilience is proposed, based on analysis of several case studies. Field studies in developing countries such as Ghana and Myanmar have shown the benefits of Eco-DRR as implemented by local communities. These projects improve local livelihoods and social-ecological resilience. In Japan, after the massive damage from the 11 March 2011, Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami, ecosystem-based approaches were an important element of the national government’s DRR efforts. Analysis of these cases shows that Eco-DRR is a socially, economically and environmentally sustainable tool for DRR that creates new value for a region. It also shows the importance of multi-stakeholder participation in the process of promoting Eco-DRR. It is likely to become even more important in the future, as a means for addressing the increase in disasters resulting from climate and ecosystem change as well as demographic change. The contribution of Eco-DRR to maintaining and restoring ecosystems is particularly valuable for countries where there is reduced capacity for land management, as currently occurring in Japan due to rapid population decline and aging.

Keywords

Geophysical and meteorological hazards 11 March 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami Multi-stakeholder engagement Social-ecological resilience 

References

  1. Alliance Development Works (2014) World risk report. UNU-EHS, BonnGoogle Scholar
  2. Costanza R, Farber SC, Maxwell J (1989) The valuation and management of wetland ecosystems. Ecol Econ 1:335–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Costanza R, d’Arge R, de Groot R et al (1997) The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Costanza R, Mitsch WJ, Day JW (2006) A new vision for New Orleans and the Mississippi delta: applying ecological economics and ecological engineering. Front Ecol Environ 4(9):465–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dudley N, Buyck C, Furuta N et al (2015) Protected areas as tools for disaster risk reduction. A handbook for practitionersGoogle Scholar
  6. Estrella M, Saalismaa N (2013) Ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (Eco-DRR): an overview. In: Renaud FG, Sudmeier-Rieux K, Estrella M (eds) The role of ecosystems in disaster risk reduction. United Nations University Press, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  7. Forestry Agency of Japan (2012) Future restoration of coastal disaster-prevention forest. http://www.rinya.maff.go.jp/j/press/tisan/pdf/120201-01.pdf Accessed 25 Apr 2015
  8. Guha-Sapir D, Below R, Hoyois P (2015) EM-DAT: International Disaster Database – www.emdat.be – Université Catholique de Louvain – Brussels
  9. IFRC (2002) Mangrove planting saves life and money in Viet Nam. International Federation of Red Cross. IUCN, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  10. IPCC (2014) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability: summary for policy makers. International Panel on Climate Change WGII (report) Available online at http://ipcc-wg2.gov
  11. Jasaw GS, Saito O, Takeuchi K (2015) Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) butter production and resource use by urban and rural processors in Northern Ghana. Sustainability 7:3592–3614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lolig V, Donkoh SA, Obeng FK et al (2014) Households’ coping strategies in drought- and flood-prone communities in Northern Ghana. J Disast Res 9(4):542–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. MLIT – Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transportation, Japan (2014) National land grand design plan 2050Google Scholar
  14. MOEJ – Ministry of the Environment, Japan (ed) (2012) National biodiversity strategy of Japan 2012–2020Google Scholar
  15. MOEJ – Ministry of the Environment, Japan (ed) (2013) Annual report on the environment, the sound material-cycle society and the biodiversityGoogle Scholar
  16. Post-Nargis Joint Assessment – Myanmar (2008) Tripartite Core Group: Government the Union of Myanmar, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, United Nations country team in Myanmar http://reliefweb.int/report/myanmar/myanmar-post-nargis-joint-assessment Accessed 7th May 2015.
  17. Otsuki K, Jasaw GS, Lolig V (2014) Framing community resilience through mobility and gender. J Disast Res 9:554–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Saito O, Shibata H (2012) Satoyama and satoumi, and ecosystems services: a conceptual framework. In: Duraiappah AK et al (eds) Stoyama-satoumi ecosystems and human well-being. Springer, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  19. Sawai N, Kobayahsi K, Takara K et al (2014) Impact of climate change on River Flows in the Black Volta River. J Disast Res 9:432–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shaw D, Scully J, Hart T (2014) The paradox of social resilience: how cognitive strategies and coping mechanisms attenuate and accentuate resilience. Glob Environ Chang 25:194–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sudmeier-Rieux K, Jaquet S, Derron M-H et al (2013) A neglected disaster: landslides and livelihoods in Central-Eastern Nepal. Glob Environ Chang 4:169–176Google Scholar
  22. Tachie-Obeng E, Hewitson B, Gyasi EA et al (2014) Downscaled climate change projections for Wa District in the Savanna Zone of Ghana. J Disast Res 9:422–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Takeuchi K (2015) Annual implementation report 2014 of SATREPS project “Enhancing Resilience to Climate and Ecosystem Changes in Semi-Arid Africa: an Integrated Approach”, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development, Environment and Energy (Global-scale environmental issues). http://www.jst.go.jp/global/kadai/pdf/h2302_h26.pdf. Accessed 24 Nov 2015
  24. Takeuchi K, Elmqvist T, Hatakeyama M et al (2014) Using sustainability science to analyze social-ecological restoration in NE Japan after the Great Earthquake and Tsunami of 2011. Sustain Sci 9:513–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. UNISDR (2015) Global assessment report on disaster risk reduction 2015. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction http://www.preventionweb.net/english/hyogo/gar/2015/en/home/index.html Accessed 7 May 2015
  26. USGS (2015) Earthquake glossary – ring of fire. U.S. Geological Survey http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/glossary/?term=Ring%20of%20Fire Accessed 25 Apr 2015
  27. Walker B, Holling CS, Carpenter S, Kinzig A (2004) Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems. Ecol Soc 19:2Google Scholar
  28. Wamsley TV, Cialone MA, Smith JM et al (2009) Nat Hazards 51:207–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. World Bank (2010) Convention solutions to an inconvenient truth: ecosystem-based approaches to climate change. World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.United Nations University (UNU)TokyoJapan
  2. 2.IR3SThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Ministry of the EnvironmentGovernment of JapanTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Institute for the Advanced Study of SustainabilityUnited Nations UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations