AMPK and Placental Progenitor Cells
AMPK is important in numerous physiological systems but plays a vital role in embryonic and placental development. The placenta is a unique organ that is the essential lifeline between the mother and baby during pregnancy and gestation. During placental development, oxygen concentrations are very low until cells differentiate to establish the appropriate lineages that take on new functions required for placental and embryonic survival. Balancing the oxygen regulatory environment with the demands for energy and need to maintain metabolism during this process places AMPK at the center of maintaining placental cellular homeostasis as it integrates and responds to numerous complex stimuli. AMPK plays a critical role in sensing metabolic and energy changes. Once activated, it turns on pathways that produce energy and shuts down catabolic processes. AMPK coordinates cell growth, differentiation, and nutrient transport to maintain cell survival. Appropriate regulation of AMPK is essential for normal placental and embryonic development, and its dysregulation may lead to pregnancy-associated disorders such as intrauterine growth restriction, placental insufficiency, or preeclampsia.
KeywordsPlacenta Trophoblast AMPK Pregnancy Stem cells Differentiation
We would like to thank Dr. David Natale (University of California San Diego) for critical reading of the manuscript and helpful input. This work was supported in part by a grant from the National Institutes of Health NICHD-R01 HD059969 (TLB) and The Wright State University Endowment for Research on Pregnancy Associated Disorders (www.wright.edu/give/pregnancyassociateddisorders) (TLB).
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