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Accessing Mitochondrial Targets Using NanoCargos

  • Ru Wen
  • Afoma C. Umeano
  • Shanta Dhar
Chapter
Part of the Fundamental Biomedical Technologies book series (FBMT)

Abstract

Mitochondria are membrane bound organelles that play essential roles for cell life, including energy production, apoptosis, redox balance, and regulation of calcium. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark for various diseases ranging from well-known diseases like cancer to rare genetic disorders like Barth’s syndrome. Accordingly, mitochondria have been identified as key targets for therapeutic intervention. Mitochondria targeting strategies using nanocargos are rapidly growing tools for delivery of therapeutic and/or diagnostic payloads to mitochondria. In this chapter, we will highlight specific mitochondrial targets for nanotechnology-based delivery vehicles, NanoCargos, and discuss intracellular uptake mechanisms for NanoCargos, as well as technological methods for investigating mechanism for NanoCargo internalization into mitochondria.

Keywords

NanoCargo Mitochondria targeting Mitochondrial uptake Technological methods 

Abbreviations

AFM

Atomic force microscopy

ANT

Adenosine nucleotide translocator

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

CPP

Cell-penetrating peptide

CDs

Carbon dots

CPZ

Chlorpromazine

DOX

Doxorubicin

FCCP

Carbonylcyanide-p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone

FRET

Förster Resonance Energy Transfer

GQDs

Graphene quantum dots

HDL

High density lipoprotein

HGC

Hydrophobic modified glycol chitosan

HK

Hexokinase

ICP-MS

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

IMM

Inner mitochondrial membrane

IMS

Intermembrane space

IVIS

In vivo image system

JC-1

5,5’6,6’-tetrachloro-1,1’,3,3’-tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide

LDH

Layered double hydroxide

MM

Mitochondrial matrix

mPTPC

Mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex

mtDNA

Mitochondrial DNA

MTS

Mitochondria targeting sequence

nDNA

Nuclear DNA

OMM

Outer mitochondrial membrane

OXPHOS

Oxidative phosphorylation

PEG

Polyethyleneglycol

QDs

Quantum dots

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

SERS

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

TPP

Triphenyphosphonium cation

TMRM

Tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester

TMRE

Tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester

VDAC

Voltage dependent anion channel

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are thankful to the Department of Defense for a Prostate Cancer Idea award (W81XWH-12-1-0406); American Heart Association for a National Scientist Award (14SDG18690009); National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of National Institutes of Health (NIH) R56 high priority bridge award (Award Number. R56HL121392); National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke of NIH R01NS093314 award, Georgia Research Alliance, and Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center for providing financial supports to conduct research in our lab in the area of nanomedicine.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NanoTherapeutics Research Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miller School of MedicineUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA

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