Skip to main content

Cultural Pragmatic Schemas, Pragmemes, and Practs: A Cultural Linguistics Perspective

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Pragmemes and Theories of Language Use

Part of the book series: Perspectives in Pragmatics, Philosophy & Psychology ((PEPRPHPS,volume 9))

Abstract

This chapter explores the relationship between cultural pragmatic schemas, pragmemes, and practs, from the perspective of Cultural Linguistics (Sharifian, Cultural conceptualisations and language: theoretical framework and applications. John Benjamins, Amsterdam, 2011; Cultural linguistics. In: F. Sharifian (ed) The Routledge handbook of language and culture. Routledge, London, pp. 473–492, 2015). The analytical tools that Cultural Linguistics draws on include cultural schemas, cultural categories, and cultural metaphors. Cultural pragmatics schemas comprise a particular class of cultural schemas that serve as a basis for communicating pragmatic meaning. This chapter argues that in certain cases, cultural pragmatic schemas, pragmemes, and practs reflect a hierarchical relationship where a particular pract instantiates a pragmeme, which in turn instantiates a particular cultural pragmatic schema. In other words, a three-tier hierarchy (cultural pragmatic schema > pragmeme > practs) is at work, such that correctly interpreting the practs requires knowledge of the underlying cultural pragmatic schemas and pragmemes in which they are entrenched. Social context, which as Mey (2007, p. 172) argues “is, by its very origin, cultural” is also an integral part of the process. The chapter elaborates on the framework by presenting and analyzing further examples from Persian.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 149.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. 1.

    The English equivalents provided in this chapter are not morpheme-to-morpheme glosses or word by word translations but are the closest semantic/pragmatic renderings of the original Persian utterances.

  2. 2.

    http://www.latimes.com/local/great-reads/la-me-c1-tarof-20150706-story.html#page=1

References

  • Babai, H., & Sharifian, F. (2013). Refusal strategies in L1 and L2: A study of Persian-speaking learners of English. Multilingua, 32(6), 801–836.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bartlett, F. C. (1932). Remembering. Cambridge: The Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bobrow, D. G., & Norman, D. A. (1975). Some principles of memory schemas. In D. G. Bobrow & A. M. Collins (Eds.), Representation and understanding: Studies in cognitive science (pp. 131–149). New York: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  • Capone, A. (2010). On pragmemes again: Dealing with death. La linguistique, 46(2), 3–21. Available at: http://www.cairn.info/revue-la-linguistique-2010-2-page-3.htm.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cook, G. (1994). Discourse and literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • D’Andrade, R. (1995). The development of cognitive anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Derry, S. J. (1996). Cognitive schema theory in the constructivist debate. Educational Psychologist, 31, 163–174.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eslami Rasekh, Z. (2005). Invitations in Persian and English: Ostensible or genuine? Intercultural Pragmatics, 2(4), 453–480.

    Google Scholar 

  • Holland, D., & Cole, M. (1995). Between discourse and schema: Reformulating a cultural-historical approach to culture and mind. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 26(4), 475–490.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kecskes, I. (2010). Situation-bound utterances as pragmatic acts. Journal of Pragmatics, 42, 2889–2897.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kecskes, I. (2013). Intercultures, encyclopaedic knowledge, and cultural models. In F. Sharifian & M. Jamarani (Eds.), Language and intercultural communication in the new era (pp. 39–59). New York/London: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mey, J. L. (2007). Developing pragmatics interculturally. In I. Kecskes & L. Horn (Eds.), Exploration in pragmatic (pp. 165–189). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mey, J. L. (2010). Reference and the pragmeme. Journal of Pragmatics, 42, 2882–2888.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Minsky, M. (1975). A framework for representing knowledge. In P. H. Winston (Ed.), The psychology of computer vision (pp. 11–142). New York: McGraw-Hil.

    Google Scholar 

  • Palmer, G. B. (1996). Toward a theory of cultural linguistics. Austin: University of Texas Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Parvini, S. (2015, July 6). In the Persian world of 'ta'arof,' they make offers that will be refused. Retrieved from http://libguides.unitec.ac.nz/apareferencing/magazine-newspaper.

  • Quinn, N., & Holland, D. (Eds.). (1987). Cultural models in language and thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rumelhart, D. E. (1980). Schemas: The building blocks of cognition. In R. Spiro, B. Bruce, & W. Brewer (Eds.), Theoretical issues in reading comprehension (pp. 33–58). Hillsdale: Lawrence Earlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rumelhart, D. E., Smolensky, P., McClelland, J. L., & Hinton, G. E. (1986). Schemata and sequential thought processes in PDP models. In J. L. McClelland, D. E. Rumelhart, & PDP Research Group (Eds.), Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition, vol. 2: Psychological and biological models (pp. 7–57). Cambridge: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schank, R. C., & Abelson, R. (1977). Scripts, plans, goals, and understanding. Hillsdale: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sharifian, F. (2005). The Persian cultural schema of shekasteh-nafsi: A study of complement responses in Persian and Anglo-Australian speakers. Pragmatics & Cognition, 13(2), 337–361.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sharifian, F. (2008). Cultural schemas in L1 and L2 compliment responses: A study of Persian-speaking learners of English. Journal of Politeness Research, 4(1), 55–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sharifian, F. (2011). Cultural conceptualisations and language: Theoretical framework and applications. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Sharifian, F. (2014). Cultural schemas as common ground. In K. Burridge & R. Benczes (Eds.), Wrestling with words and meanings (pp. 219–235). Clayton: Monash University Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sharifian, F. (2015). Cultural linguistics. In F. Sharifian (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of language and culture (pp. 473–492). London/New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sharifian, F., & Jamarani, M. (2011). Cultural schemas in intercultural communication: A study of Persian cultural schema of sharmandegi ‘being ashamed’. Intercultural Pragmatics, 8(2), 227–251.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sharifian, F., Tayebi, T. (in press). Perception of (im)politeness and underlying cultural conceptualisations: A study of persian. Pragmatics and Society.

    Google Scholar 

  • Strauss, C., & Quinn, N. (1997). A cognitive theory of cultural meaning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, S. E., & Crocker, J. (1981). Schematic bases of social information processing. In E. T. Higgins, C. A. Hermann, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), Social cognition: The ontario symposium on personality and social psychology (pp. 89–134). Hillsdale, NJ: Earlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Watson-Gegeo, K. A., & Gegeo, D. W. (1999). (Re)modeling culture in Kwara’ae: The role of discourse in children’s cognitive development. Discourse Studies, 1(2), 227–246.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wong, J. (2010). The “triple articulation” of language. Journal of Pragmatics, 42, 2932–2944.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Farzad Sharifian .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Sharifian, F. (2016). Cultural Pragmatic Schemas, Pragmemes, and Practs: A Cultural Linguistics Perspective. In: Allan, K., Capone, A., Kecskes, I. (eds) Pragmemes and Theories of Language Use. Perspectives in Pragmatics, Philosophy & Psychology, vol 9. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-43491-9_26

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-43491-9_26

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-43490-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-43491-9

  • eBook Packages: Social SciencesSocial Sciences (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics