New Challenges in Aortic Stenosis in the Elderly: From Epidemiology to TAVI

  • Andreas W. SchoenenbergerEmail author
  • Manuel Martínez-Sellés


There are three principal causes of valvular aortic stenosis (AS): congenital, rheumatic, and degenerative. While congenital AS clinically manifests at younger ages and rheumatic AS dwindled in importance with the decline in rheumatic fever, age-related degenerative calcific AS is now the most common cause of valvular AS in adults [1]. Degenerative calcific AS is the result of a progressive calcification of the aortic valves based on a process of inflammation, lipid accumulation, and calcification. This dynamic process resembles the process of atherosclerosis in many regards. Some clinical risk factors of atherosclerosis have also been identified as risk factors of calcific AS, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and diabetes [2]. Degenerative calcific AS occurs in patients with congenitally normal tricuspid aortic valves, but a congenitally bicuspid aortic valve seems to be an important additional risk factor of degenerative calcific AS development [1, 3].


Aortic Valve Aortic Stenosis Aortic Valve Replacement Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Rheumatic Fever 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas W. Schoenenberger
    • 1
    Email author
  • Manuel Martínez-Sellés
    • 2
  1. 1.University Department of GeriatricsBern University HospitalBernSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of CardiologyUniversity Hospital Gregorio Marañón, Universidad Europea y Universidad ComplutenseMadridSpain

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