Advertisement

Effects of Ageing on the Vaccination Response

  • Birgit Weinberger
Chapter

Abstract

Vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent infectious diseases, as vaccination of children has proven world-wide. The topic of vaccines for the older adult is receiving increased attention due to demographic changes and the increased incidence and severity of many infections in older adults. Vaccine recommendations for the old are implemented in most countries and include vaccination against influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae and frequently also herpes zoster. Vaccines which are recommended for all adults, e.g. against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis, need to be considered for the old. However, vaccination coverage is frequently poor. Immunogenicity and clinical efficacy of most vaccines decrease with age and are therefore not optimal in the old. Strategies to improve vaccines for the older age group include; optimized schedules, high-dose formulations, alternative routes of administration, such as intradermal vaccination, and the use of adjuvants. Detailed knowledge of age-associated changes to the immune system will enable us to rationally design new vaccines, which specifically target the aged immune system. The development of novel vaccines replacing existing formulations and of vaccines against additional pathogens is being actively pursued, and together with optimal use of existing vaccines, will contribute to improved health and quality of life for an ageing society.

Keywords

Vaccination Ageing Influenza Streptococcus pneumoniae Herpes zoster Tetanus Diphtheria Pertussis Respiratory syncytial virus 

References

  1. 1.
    Thompson WW, Shay DK, Weintraub E, Brammer L, Cox N, Anderson LJ, et al. Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States. JAMA. 2003;289:179–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thompson WW, Shay DK, Weintraub E, Brammer L, Bridges CB, Cox NJ, et al. Influenza-associated hospitalizations in the United States. JAMA. 2004;292:1333–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pinchinat S, Cebrian-Cuenca AM, Bricout H, Johnson RW. Similar herpes zoster incidence across Europe: results from a systematic literature review. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:170.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Thigpen MC, Whitney CG, Messonnier NE, Zell ER, Lynfield R, Hadler JL, et al. Bacterial meningitis in the United States, 1998-2007. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:2016–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Janssens JP, Krause KH. Pneumonia in the very old. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4:112–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Edwards MS, Baker CJ. Group B streptococcal infections in elderly adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:839–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kish TD, Chang MH, Fung HB. Treatment of skin and soft tissue infections in the elderly: a review. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2010;8:485–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Matthews SJ, Lancaster JW. Urinary tract infections in the elderly population. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2011;9:286–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weinberger B, Herndler-Brandstetter D, Schwanninger A, Weiskopf D, Grubeck-Loebenstein B. Biology of immune responses to vaccines in elderly persons. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:1078–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mereckiene, J. Seasonal influenza vaccination in Europe. 2015 http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/Seasonal-influenza-vaccination-Europe-2012-13.pdf. Accessed 21 Dec 2015.
  11. 11.
    Belshe RB, Coelingh K, Ambrose CS, Woo JC, Wu X. Efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine in children against influenza B viruses by lineage and antigenic similarity. Vaccine. 2010;28:2149–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kieninger D, Sheldon E, Lin WY, Yu CJ, Bayas JM, Gabor JJ, et al. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine candidate versus inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine: a phase III, randomized trial in adults aged >/=18 years. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:343.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McKeage K. Inactivated quadrivalent split-virus seasonal influenza vaccine (Fluarix(R) quadrivalent): a review of its use in the prevention of disease caused by influenza A and B. Drugs. 2013;73:1587–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brydak LB, Machala M, Mysliwska J, Mysliwski A, Trzonkowski P. Immune response to influenza vaccination in an elderly population. J Clin Immunol. 2003;23:214–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stepanova L, Naykhin A, Kolmskog C, Jonson G, Barantceva I, Bichurina M, et al. The humoral response to live and inactivated influenza vaccines administered alone and in combination to young adults and elderly. J Clin Virol. 2002;24:193–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mysliwska J, Trzonkowski P, Szmit E, Brydak LB, Machala M, Mysliwski A. Immunomodulating effect of influenza vaccination in the elderly differing in health status. Exp Gerontol. 2004;39:1447–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Goodwin K, Viboud C, Simonsen L. Antibody response to influenza vaccination in the elderly: a quantitative review. Vaccine. 2006;24:1159–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gravenstein S, Drinka P, Duthie EH, Miller BA, Brown CS, Hensley M, et al. Efficacy of an influenza hemagglutinin-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine in elderly nursing home subjects during an influenza outbreak. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1994;42:245–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wu YC, Kipling D, Dunn-Walters DK. Age-related changes in human peripheral blood IGH repertoire following vaccination. Front Immunol. 2012;3:193.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jiang N, He J, Weinstein JA, Penland L, Sasaki S, He XS, et al. Lineage structure of the human antibody repertoire in response to influenza vaccination. Sci Transl Med. 2013;5:171ra19.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sasaki S, Sullivan M, Narvaez CF, Holmes TH, Furman D, Zheng NY, et al. Limited efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccine in elderly individuals is associated with decreased production of vaccine-specific antibodies. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:3109–19.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Murasko DM, Bernstein ED, Gardner EM, Gross P, Munk G, Dran S, et al. Role of humoral and cell-mediated immunity in protection from influenza disease after immunization of healthy elderly. Exp Gerontol. 2002;37:427–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhou X, McElhaney JE. Age-related changes in memory and effector T cells responding to influenza A/H3N2 and pandemic A/H1N1 strains in humans. Vaccine. 2011;29:2169–77.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rockwood K, Song X, MacKnight C, Bergman H, Hogan DB, McDowell I, et al. A global clinical measure of fitness and frailty in elderly people. CMAJ. 2005;173:489–95.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yao X, Hamilton RG, Weng NP, Xue QL, Bream JH, Li H, et al. Frailty is associated with impairment of vaccine-induced antibody response and increase in post-vaccination influenza infection in community-dwelling older adults. Vaccine. 2011;29:5015–21.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Carrat F, Flahault A. Influenza vaccine: the challenge of antigenic drift. Vaccine. 2007;25:6852–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Call SA, Vollenweider MA, Hornung CA, Simel DL, McKinney WP. Does this patient have influenza? JAMA. 2005;293:987–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Boivin G, Hardy I, Tellier G, Maziade J. Predicting influenza infections during epidemics with use of a clinical case definition. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31:1166–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Babcock HM, Merz LR, Fraser VJ. Is influenza an influenza-like illness? Clinical presentation of influenza in hospitalized patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006;27:266–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Flamaing J, Engelmann I, Joosten E, van Ranst M, Verhaegen J, Peetermans WE. Viral lower respiratory tract infection in the elderly: a prospective in-hospital study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003;22:720–5.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Talbot HK, Keitel W, Cate TR, Treanor J, Campbell J, Brady RC, et al. Immunogenicity, safety and consistency of new trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine. Vaccine. 2008;26:4057–61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Govaert TM, Thijs CT, Masurel N, Sprenger MJ, Dinant GJ, Knottnerus JA. The efficacy of influenza vaccination in elderly individuals. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. JAMA. 1994;272:1661–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Praditsuwan R, Assantachai P, Wasi C, Puthavatana P, Kositanont U. The efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccination among Thai elderly persons living in the community. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88:256–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Allsup S, Haycox A, Regan M, Gosney M. Is influenza vaccination cost effective for healthy people between ages 65 and 74 years? A randomised controlled trial. Vaccine. 2004;23:639–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Beyer WE, McElhaney J, Smith DJ, Monto AS, Nguyen-Van-Tam JS, Osterhaus AD. Cochrane re-arranged: support for policies to vaccinate elderly people against influenza. Vaccine. 2013;31:6030–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Osterholm MT, Kelley NS, Sommer A, Belongia EA. Efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccines: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:36–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rivetti D, Jefferson T, Thomas R, Rudin M, Rivetti A, Di PC, et al. Vaccines for preventing influenza in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;3, CD004876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cools HJ, Gussekloo J, Remmerswaal JE, Remarque EJ, Kroes AC. Benefits of increasing the dose of influenza vaccine in residents of long-term care facilities: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Med Virol. 2009;81:908–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chen WH, Cross AS, Edelman R, Sztein MB, Blackwelder WC, Pasetti MF. Antibody and Th1-type cell-mediated immune responses in elderly and young adults immunized with the standard or a high dose influenza vaccine. Vaccine. 2011;29:2865–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nace DA, Lin CJ, Ross TM, Saracco S, Churilla RM, Zimmerman RK. Randomized, controlled trial of high-dose influenza vaccine among frail residents of long-term care facilities. J Infect Dis. 2015;211:1915–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Richardson DM, Medvedeva EL, Roberts CB, Linkin DR. Comparative effectiveness of high-dose versus standard-dose influenza vaccination in community-dwelling veterans. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61:171–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Izurieta HS, Thadani N, Shay DK, Lu Y, Maurer A, Foppa IM, et al. Comparative effectiveness of high-dose versus standard-dose influenza vaccines in US residents aged 65 years and older from 2012 to 2013 using Medicare data: a retrospective cohort analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15:293–300.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    DiazGranados CA, Dunning AJ, Kimmel M, Kirby D, Treanor J, Collins A, et al. Efficacy of high-dose versus standard-dose influenza vaccine in older adults. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:635–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nicolas JF, Guy B. Intradermal, epidermal and transcutaneous vaccination: from immunology to clinical practice. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008;7:1201–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Durando P, Iudici R, Alicino C, Alberti M, de Florentis D, Ansaldi, F et al. Adjuvants and alternative routes of administration towards the development of the ideal influenza vaccine. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7(Suppl):29–40.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Holland D, Booy R, de Looze F, Eizenberg P, McDonald J, Karrasch J, et al. Intradermal influenza vaccine administered using a new microinjection system produces superior immunogenicity in elderly adults: a randomized controlled trial. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:650–8.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ott G, Barchfeld GL, Van Nest G. Enhancement of humoral response against human influenza vaccine with the simple submicron oil/water emulsion adjuvant MF59. Vaccine. 1995;13:1557–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    O‘Hagan DT, Ott GS, DeGregorio E, Seubert A. The mechanism of action of MF59—an innately attractive adjuvant formulation. Vaccine. 2012;30:4341–8.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Beyer WE, Nauta JJ, Palache AM, Giezeman KM, Osterhaus AD. Immunogenicity and safety of inactivated influenza vaccines in primed populations: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Vaccine. 2011;29:5785–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Banzhoff A, Nacci P, Podda A. A new MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine enhances the immune response in the elderly with chronic diseases: results from an immunogenicity meta-analysis. Gerontology. 2003;49:177–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mannino S, Villa M, Apolone G, Weiss NS, Groth N, Aquino I, et al. Effectiveness of adjuvanted influenza vaccination in elderly subjects in northern Italy. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176:527–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Iob A, Brianti G, Zamparo E, Gallo T. Evidence of increased clinical protection of an MF59-adjuvant influenza vaccine compared to a non-adjuvant vaccine among elderly residents of long-term care facilities in Italy. Epidemiol Infect. 2005;133:687–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Legrand J, Vergu E, Flahault A. Real-time monitoring of the influenza vaccine field effectiveness. Vaccine. 2006;24:6605–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ansaldi F, Bacilieri S, Durando P, Sticchi L, Valle L, Montomoli E, et al. Cross-protection by MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine: neutralizing and haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody activity against A(H3N2) drifted influenza viruses. Vaccine. 2008;26:1525–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    DelGiudice G, Hilbert AK, Bugarini R, Minutello A, Popova O, Toneatto D, et al. An MF59-adjuvanted inactivated influenza vaccine containing A/Panama/1999 (H3N2) induced broader serological protection against heterovariant influenza virus strain A/Fujian/2002 than a subunit and a split influenza vaccine. Vaccine. 2006;24:3063–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Baldo V, Baldovin T, Pellegrini M, Angiolelli G, Majori S, Floreani A, et al. Immunogenicity of three different influenza vaccines against homologous and heterologous strains in nursing home elderly residents. Clin Dev Immunol. 2010;2010:517198.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    O‘Hagan DT, Rappuoli R, DeGregorio E, Tsai T, Del GG. MF59 adjuvant: the best insurance against influenza strain diversity. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011;10:447–62.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Del Giudice G, Rappuoli R. Inactivated and adjuvanted influenza vaccines. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2015;386:151–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Klucker MF, Dalencon F, Probeck P, Haensler J. AF03, an alternative squalene emulsion-based vaccine adjuvant prepared by a phase inversion temperature method. J Pharm Sci. 2012;101:4490–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Garcon N, Vaughn DW, Didierlaurent AM. Development and evaluation of AS03, an Adjuvant System containing alpha-tocopherol and squalene in an oil-in-water emulsion. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2012;11:349–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Moser C, Amacker M, Zurbriggen R. Influenza virosomes as a vaccine adjuvant and carrier system. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011;10:437–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wiersma LC, Rimmelzwaan GF, de Vries RD. Developing universal influenza vaccines: hitting the nail, not just on the head. Vaccines (Basel). 2015;3:239–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Prevention of pneumococcal disease: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 1997;46: 1–24.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Moberley SA, Holden J, Tatham DP, Andrews RM. Vaccines for preventing pneumococcal infection in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;1, CD000422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Vila-Corcoles A, Salsench E, Rodriguez-Blanco T, Ochoa-Gondar O, de Diego C, Valdivieso A, et al. Clinical effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine against pneumonia in middle-aged and older adults: a matched case-control study. Vaccine. 2009;27:1504–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Maruyama T, Taguchi O, Niederman MS, Morser J, Kobayashi H, Kobayashi T, et al. Efficacy of 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in preventing pneumonia and improving survival in nursing home residents: double blind, randomised and placebo controlled trial. BMJ. 2010;340:c1004.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Melegaro A, Edmunds WJ. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Part I. Efficacy of PPV in the elderly: a comparison of meta-analyses. Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19:353–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Feldman C, Anderson R. Review: current and new generation pneumococcal vaccines. J Infect. 2014;69:309–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kumar R, Burns EA. Age-related decline in immunity: implications for vaccine responsiveness. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008;7:467–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    De Donato S, Granoff D, Minutello M, Lecchi G, Faccini M, Agnello M, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine in the elderly. Vaccine. 1999;17:3094–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lexau CA, Lynfield R, Danila R, Pilishvili T, Facklam R, Farley MM, et al. Changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease among older adults in the era of pediatric pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. JAMA. 2005;294:2043–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Jackson LA, Gurtman A, Vancleeff M, Jansen KU, Jayawardene D, Devlin C, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared to a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in pneumococcal vaccine-naive adults. Vaccine. 2013;31:3577–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bonten MJ, Huijts SM, Bolkenbaas M, Webber C, Patterson S, Gault S, et al. Polysaccharide conjugate vaccine against pneumococcal pneumonia in adults. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:1114–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    van Werkhoven CH, Huijts SM, Bolkenbaas M, Grobbee DE, Bonten MJ. The impact of Age on the efficacy of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in elderly. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61:1835–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    McFetridge R, Meulen AS, Folkerth SD, Hoekstra JA, Dallas M, Hoover PA, et al. Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in healthy adults. Vaccine. 2015;33:2793–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Dagan R. Serotype replacement in perspective. Vaccine. 2009;27 Suppl 3:C22–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Esposito S, Principi N. Direct and indirect effects of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administered to infants and young children. Future Microbiol. 2015;10:1599–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Burke BL, Steele RW, Beard OW, Wood JS, Cain TD, Marmer DJ. Immune responses to varicella-zoster in the aged. Arch Intern Med. 1982;142:291–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Katz J, Cooper EM, Walther RR, Sweeney EW, Dworkin RH. Acute pain in herpes zoster and its impact on health-related quality of life. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:342–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Scott FT, Johnson RW, Leedham-Green M, Davies E, Edmunds WJ, Breuer J. The burden of Herpes Zoster: a prospective population based study. Vaccine. 2006;24:1308–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Levin MJ, Oxman MN, Zhang JH, Johnson GR, Stanley H, Hayward AR, et al. Varicella-zoster virus-specific immune responses in elderly recipients of a herpes zoster vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:825–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Oxman MN, Levin MJ, Johnson GR, Schmader KE, Straus SE, Gelb LD, et al. A vaccine to prevent herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in older adults. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:2271–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Morrison VA, Johnson GR, Schmader KE, Levin MJ, Zhang JH, Looney DJ, et al. Long-term persistence of zoster vaccine efficacy. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60:900–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hechter RC, Tartof SY, Jacobsen SJ, Smith N, Tseng HF. Trends and disparity in zoster vaccine uptake in a managed care population. Vaccine. 2013;31:4564–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hales CM, Harpaz R, Ortega-Sanchez I, Bialek SR. Update on recommendations for use of herpes zoster vaccine. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:729–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Stadtmauer EA, Sullivan KM, Marty FM, Dadwal SS, Papanicolaou GA, Shea TC, et al. A phase 1/2 study of an adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus subunit vaccine in autologous hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. Blood. 2014;124:2921–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Berkowitz EM, Moyle G, Stellbrink HJ, Schurmann D, Kegg S, Stoll M, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit candidate vaccine in HIV-infected adults: a phase 1/2a randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Infect Dis. 2015;211:1279–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Leroux-Roels I, Leroux-Roels G, Clement F, Vandepapeliere P, Vassilev V, Ledent E, et al. A phase 1/2 clinical trial evaluating safety and immunogenicity of a varicella zoster glycoprotein e subunit vaccine candidate in young and older adults. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:1280–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Chlibek R, Bayas JM, Collins H, de la Pinta ML, Ledent E, Mols JF, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of an AS01-adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus subunit candidate vaccine against herpes zoster in adults > =50 years of age. J Infect Dis. 2013;208:1953–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lal H, Cunningham AL, Godeaux O, Chlibek R, Diez-Domingo J, Hwang SJ, et al. Efficacy of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine in older adults. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:2087–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Weinberger B. Adult vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria: the European perspective. Clin Exp Immunol. 2016. doi: 10.1111/cei.12822.
  92. 92.
    Vaccine-preventable diseases: monitoring system. 2016 http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary. Accessed 14 Jan 2016.
  93. 93.
    Vitek CR, Wharton M. Diphtheria in the former Soviet Union: reemergence of a pandemic disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4:539–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Weinberger B, Schirmer M, Matteucci GR, Siebert U, Fuchs D, Grubeck-Loebenstein B. Recall responses to tetanus and diphtheria vaccination are frequently insufficient in elderly persons. PLoS One. 2013;8, e82967.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Launay O, Toneatti C, Bernede C, Njamkepo E, Petitprez K, Leblond A, et al. Antibodies to tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis among healthy adults vaccinated according to the French vaccination recommendations. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5:341–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Van Damme P, Burgess M. Immunogenicity of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine in adults. Vaccine. 2004;22:305–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Steger MM, Maczek C, Berger P, Grubeck-Loebenstein B. Vaccination against tetanus in the elderly: do recommended vaccination strategies give sufficient protection. Lancet. 1996;348:762.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kaml M, Weiskirchner I, Keller M, Luft T, Hoster E, Hasford J, et al. Booster vaccination in the elderly: Their success depends on the vaccine type applied earlier in life as well as on pre-vaccination antibody titers. Vaccine. 2006;24:6808–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hainz U, Jenewein B, Asch E, Pfeiffer KP, Berger P, Grubeck-Loebenstein B. Insufficient protection for healthy elderly adults by tetanus and TBE vaccines. Vaccine. 2005;23:3232–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Haynes L, Eaton SM, Burns EM, Randall TD, Swain SL. CD4 T cell memory derived from young naive cells functions well into old age, but memory generated from aged naive cells functions poorly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15053–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Ridda I, Yin JK, King C, Raina MC, McIntyre P. The importance of pertussis in older adults: a growing case for reviewing vaccination strategy in the elderly. Vaccine. 2012;30:6745–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Gil A, Oyaguez I, Carrasco P, Gonzalez A. Hospital admissions for pertussis in Spain, 1995-1998. Vaccine. 2001;19:4791–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Barreto L, Guasparini R, Meekison W, Noya F, Young L, Mills E. Humoral immunity 5 years after booster immunization with an adolescent and adult formulation combined tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine. Vaccine. 2007;25:8172–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Wendelboe AM, van Rie A, Salmaso S, Englund JA. Duration of immunity against pertussis after natural infection or vaccination. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:S58–61.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Halperin SA, Scheifele D, de Serres G, Noya F, Meekison W, Zickler P, et al. Immune responses in adults to revaccination with a tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine 10 years after a previous dose. Vaccine. 2012;30:974–82.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Fleming DM, Taylor RJ, Lustig RL, Schuck-Paim C, Haguinet F, Webb DJ, et al. Modelling estimates of the burden of Respiratory Syncytial virus infection in adults and the elderly in the United Kingdom. BMC Infect Dis. 2015;15:443.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kim HW, Canchola JG, Brandt CD, Pyles G, Chanock RM, Jensen K, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus disease in infants despite prior administration of antigenic inactivated vaccine. Am J Epidemiol. 1969;89:422–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Shaw CA, Ciarlet M, Cooper BW, Dionigi L, Keith P, O‘Brien KB, et al. The path to an RSV vaccine. Curr Opin Virol. 2013;3:332–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Lowy FD. Staphylococcus aureus infections. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:520–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Shinefield H, Black S, Fattom A, Horwith G, Rasgon S, Ordonez J, et al. Use of a Staphylococcus aureus conjugate vaccine in patients receiving hemodialysis. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:491–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Fowler VG, Allen KB, Moreira ED, Moustafa M, Isgro F, Boucher HW, et al. Effect of an investigational vaccine for preventing Staphylococcus aureus infections after cardiothoracic surgery: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2013;309:1368–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Swanson KA, Schmitt HJ, Jansen KU, Anderson AS. Adult vaccination. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2015;11:150–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Simor AE, Bradley SF, Strausbaugh LJ, Crossley K, Nicolle LE. Clostridium difficile in long-term-care facilities for the elderly. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002;23:696–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Karas JA, Enoch DA, Aliyu SH. A review of mortality due to Clostridium difficile infection. J Infect. 2010;61:1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Cross AS, Chen WH, Levine MM. A case for immunization against nosocomial infections. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:483–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Williams WW, Lu PJ, O‘Halloran A, Bridges CB, Pilishvili T, Hales CM, et al. Noninfluenza vaccination coverage among adults—United States, 2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:95–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kanitz EE, Wu LA, Giambi C, Strikas RA, Levy-Bruhl D, Stefanoff P, et al. Variation in adult vaccination policies across Europe: an overview from VENICE network on vaccine recommendations, funding and coverage. Vaccine. 2012;30:5222–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Institute for Biomedical Aging ResearchUniversity of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria

Personalised recommendations