Advertisement

Sexual Difference in Times of War: The Poetry of Piedad Morales and The Ruta Pacífica de las Mujeres

  • Cherilyn Elston
Chapter
Part of the Breaking Feminist Waves book series (BFW)

Abstract

This chapter tells the story of women’s greater political participation in Colombia not just in armed groups but in the growing human rights and peace movements from the 1990s. Looking at the emergence of the feminist and pacifist organization, the Ruta Pacífica, Elston traces their use of a discourse of sexual difference feminism to show how this challenges predominant narratives of Western feminist history, which consign sexual difference to the “essentialist” past. The chapter explores the relationship between women’s social movements in Colombia and the non-canonical women’s poetry movement, looking at how a feminine symbolic order related to peace is articulated in the poetry of the unknown poet Piedad Morales (1956–2012).

Keywords

Sexual Difference Armed Conflict Feminist Politics Feminist Movement Armed Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Alvarez, Sonia. 1998. ‘Latin American Feminisms “Go Global”: Trends of the 1990s and Challenges for the New Millennium.’ In Cultures of Politics, Politics of Cultures: Re-Visioning Latin American Social Movements, edited by Sonia Alvarez, Evelina Dagnino, and Arturo Escobar, 293–324. Boulder, Colo.; Oxford: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alvarez, Sonia E., Elisabeth Jay Friedman, Ericka Beckman, Maylei Blackwell, Norma Stoltz Chinchilla, Nathalie Lebon, Marysa Navarro, and Marcela Ríos Tobar. 2002. ‘Encountering Latin American and Caribbean Feminisms.’ Signs 28 (2): 537–79. doi:10.1086/signs.2003.28.issue-2.Google Scholar
  3. Agamben, Giorgio, and Daniel Heller-Roazen. 1998. Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Meridian. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Ángel, Albalucía. 2004. Cantos y encantamientos de la lluvia. Bogotá: Apidama.Google Scholar
  5. Anrup, Roland. 2011. Antígona y Creonte. Rebeldía y estado en Colombia. Bogotá: Ediciones B – Colombia SA.Google Scholar
  6. Araújo, Helena. 1989. La Scherezada criolla: ensayos sobre escritura femenina latinoamericana. Bogotá: Centro Editorial, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.Google Scholar
  7. Bollig, Ben. 2009. ‘How many ways to leave your country? On exile and not-belonging in the work of Alejandra Pizarnik.’ The Modern Language Review 104 (2): 421–37.Google Scholar
  8. Braidotti, Rosi. 1994. Nomadic Subjects: Embodiment and Sexual Difference in Contemporary Feminist Theory. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Braidotti, Rosi. 1998. ‘Sexual difference theory.’ In A Companion to Feminist Philosophy, edited by Alison Jaggar and Iris Marion Young, 298–306. Malden, Mass.; Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  10. Braidotti, Rosi. 2000. ‘The Way We Were: Some Post-Structuralist Memoirs.’ Women’s Studies International Forum, Histoire/Histoires: In Honour of Claire Duchen, 23 (6): 715–28. doi:10.1016/S0277-5395(00)00143-6.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, Wendy. 2004. ‘“The Most We Can Hope For…”: Human Rights and the Politics of Fatalism.’ The South Atlantic Quarterly 103 (2): 451–63.Google Scholar
  12. Bush, Andrew. 2004. ‘María Zambrano and the Survival of Antigone.’ Diacritics 34 (3): 90–110. doi:10.1353/dia.2006.0043.Google Scholar
  13. Butler, Judith. 2000. Antigone’s Claim: Kinship between Life & Death. New York; Chichester: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Carrillo, Vladimir and Tom Kucharz, eds. 2006. Colombia: terrorismo de estado. Testimonios de la guerra sucia contra los movimientos populares. Barcelona: Icaria editorial.Google Scholar
  15. Centro Nacional de Memoria Histórica. 2011. Mujeres y guerra: víctimas y resistentes en el caribe colombiano. Bogotá, Colombia: Taurus.Google Scholar
  16. Cockburn, Cynthia. 2004. ‘The Continuum of Violence: A Gender Perspective on War and Peace.’ In Sites of Violence: Gender and Conflict Zones, edited by Wenona Giles and Jennifer Hyndman, 24–44. Berkeley, Calif.; London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  17. Cockburn, Cynthia. 2007. From Where We Stand: War, Women’s Activism and Feminist Analysis. London: Zed.Google Scholar
  18. Cohn, Carol. 2013. Women and Wars. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  19. Cohn, Carol. 2014. ‘“Maternal Thinking” and the Concept of “vulnerability” in Security Paradigms, Policies, and Practices.’ Journal of International Political Theory 10 (1): 46–69. doi:10.1177/1755088213507186.Google Scholar
  20. Coleman, Lara Montesinos. 2013. ‘The Making of Docile Dissent: Neoliberalization and Resistance in Colombia and Beyond.’ International Political Sociology 7 (2): 170–87. doi:10.1111/ips.12016.Google Scholar
  21. Contravía. Ruta Pacífica de las Mujeres en Chocó. Directed by Hollman Morris. Colombia: Morris Producciones, 2005. Accessed December 8, 2014. http://www.contravia.tv/espanol/capitulos/2005/Ruta-Pacifica-de-las-Mujeres-2005
  22. Escobar, Arturo. 2008. Territories of Difference: Place, Movements, Life, Redes. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Escobar, Arturo, and Wendy Harcourt, eds. 2005. Women and the Politics of Place. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
  24. Franco, Jean. 1992. ‘Going Public: Reinhabiting the Private.’ In On Edge: The Crisis of Contemporary Latin American Culture, edited by George Yúdice and Jean Franco, 65–83. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  25. Galeano, Juan Carlos, and Kenneth Watson. 2000. ‘Poetics of Aggression: The Colombian Case.’ Mississippi Review 28 (3): 101–11.Google Scholar
  26. Gallego, Marina. Interview by author. Digital recording. Casa de la Mujer, Bogotá, September 10, 2013.Google Scholar
  27. Gargallo, Francesca. 2004. Ideas feministas latinoamericanas. México, D.F.: Universidad de la Ciudad de México.Google Scholar
  28. Gentic, Tania. 2010. ‘Creating Poetic Subjectivity in María Zambrano and José Lezama Lima.’ Revista Hispánica Moderna 63 (2): 173–92.Google Scholar
  29. Ghezzi, Melissa, and Claudia Salazar, eds. 2011. Voces para Lilith: literatura contemporánea de temática lésbica en Sudamérica. Lima, Perú: estruendomudo.Google Scholar
  30. Gill, Lesley. 2007. ‘“Right There With You”: Coca-Cola, Labor Restructuring and Political Violence in Colombia.’ Critique of Anthropology 27, no. 3:235–260. doi: 10.1177/0308275X07080354Google Scholar
  31. Giraldo, Javier. 1996. Colombia: the genocidal democracy. Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press.Google Scholar
  32. Harding, Sandra G. 2004. The Feminist Standpoint Theory Reader: Intellectual and Political Controversies. New York; London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Hartsock, Nancy C. M. 1983. ‘The Feminist Standpoint.’ In Discovering Reality: Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science, edited by Sandra Harding and Merrill B. Hintikka, 283–310. Dordrecht: Reidel.Google Scholar
  34. Hylton, Forrest. 2006. Evil Hour in Colombia. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  35. Irigaray, Luce. 2010. ‘Between Myth and History: The Tragedy of Antigone.’ In Interrogating Antigone in Postmodern Philosophy and Criticism, edited by S.E. Wilmer and Audrone Zukauskaite, 197–211. Classical Presences. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Kirk, Robin. 2010. More Terrible Than Death: Drugs, Violence, and America’s War in Colombia. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  37. Lamus Canavate, Doris. 2010. De la subversión a la inclusión: movimientos de mujeres de la segunda ola en Colombia, 1975–2005. Bogotá: Instituto Colombiano de Antropología e Historia.Google Scholar
  38. Lorde, Audre. 1997. ‘The Uses of Anger.’ Women’s Studies Quarterly 25 (1/2): 278–85.Google Scholar
  39. Luna, Lola G. 2004. El sujeto sufragista, feminismo y feminidad en Colombia 1930–1957. Cali: Ediciones La Manzana de la Discordia: Centro de Estudios de Género, Mujer y Sociedad, Universidad del Valle.Google Scholar
  40. Martin, Deborah. 2012. Painting, Literature, and Film in Colombian Feminine Culture, 1940–2005: Of Border Guards, Nomads and Women. Vol. 307. Colección Támesis. Serie A, Monografías; Woodbridge, Suffolk; Rochester, NY: Tamesis.Google Scholar
  41. Morales, Piedad. 1993. Indicio Inquietante. Bogotá: Editorial Lito Ceis.Google Scholar
  42. Morales, Piedad. 2003a. Lluvia en la memoria.Google Scholar
  43. Morales, Piedad. 2006. Des-hojada palabra. Medellín: Editorial Uryco.Google Scholar
  44. Morales, Piedad. 2007. ‘De piel y arena; azogue.’ Escritoras y Escrituras (Revista internacional de literaturas y culturas) October 30. Accessed June 29, 2014. http://www.escritorasyescrituras.com/revista.php/6
  45. Morales, Piedad. 2013. ‘In memoriam. Piedad Morales, Poesía.’ Quitasol. Revista de poesía, arte y literatura, no.7, March: 79–88.Google Scholar
  46. Moreiras, Alberto. 2009. ‘The Last God: María Zambrano’s Life without Texture.’ In A Leftist Ontology: Beyond Relativism and Identity Politics, edited by Carsten Strathausen, 170–187. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  47. Moser, Caroline N. O., and Fiona Clark. 2001. Victims, Perpetrators Or Actors? Gender, Armed Conflict and Political Violence. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  48. Murdock, Donna F. 2003. ‘Neoliberalism, Gender, and Development: Institutionalizing “Post-Feminism” in Medellín, Colombia.’ Women’s Studies Quarterly 31 (3/4): 129–53.Google Scholar
  49. Nimmo, Clare E. 1997. ‘The Poet and the Thinker: María Zambrano and Feminist Criticism.’ The Modern Language Review 92 (4): 893–902. doi:10.2307/3734208.Google Scholar
  50. Pleitez Vela, Tania. 2009. ‘From Antigone to Creon: Traditional Masculine Models in the Poetry of Alfonsina Storni and Rosario Castellanos.’ In Identity, Nation, Discourse: Latin American Women Writers and Artists, edited by Claire Taylor, 122–143. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  51. Ramírez, María Clemencia. 2010. ‘Maintaining Democracy in Colombia through Political Exclusion, States of Exception, Counterinsurgency, and Dirty War.’ In Violent Democracies in Latin America, edited by Enrique Arias and Daniel Goldstein, 84–107. Durham [NC]: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Rojas, Catalina. 2009. ‘Women and Peacebuilding in Colombia. Resistance to War, Creativity for Peace.’ In Colombia: Building Peace in a Time of War, edited by Virginia Bouvier, 207–224. Washington D.C.: US Institute of Peace Press.Google Scholar
  53. Rojas, Cristina. 2009. ‘Securing the State and Developing Social Insecurities: The Securitisation of Citizenship in Contemporary Colombia.’ Third World Quarterly 30 (1): 227–45. doi:10.1080/01436590802622631.Google Scholar
  54. Rowe, William. 2000. Poets of Contemporary Latin America: History and the Inner Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Ruta Pacífica. 2003. La Ruta Pacífica de las Mujeres. Bogotá: Ruta Pacífica.Google Scholar
  56. Ruta Pacífica. 2005. Palabras, representaciones y resistencias de mujeres en el contexto del conflicto armado colombiano. Medellín: Ruta Pacífica. Accessed August 29, 2014. http://www.rutapacifica.org.co/publicaciones/item/204-palabras-representaciones-y-resistencias-de-mujeres-en-el-contexto-del-conflicto-armado-colombiano
  57. Ruta Pacífica. 2013. La verdad de las mujeres. Víctimas del conflicto armado en Colombia. Bogotá: Ruta Pacífica. Accessed August 29, 2014. http://www.rutapacifica.org.co/publicaciones/item/198-la-verdad-de-las-mujeres-victimas-del-conflicto-armado-en-colombia-informe-de-comision-de-verdad-y-memoria
  58. Sánchez, Olga. 2008. Las violencias contra las mujeres en una sociedad en guerra. Bogotá: Ruta Pacífica de las Mujeres. Accessed December 10, 2014. http://www.rutapacifica.org.co/publicaciones/item/227-las-violencias-contra-las-mujeres-en-una-sociedad-en-guerra
  59. Santos, Boaventura de Sousa, and Mauricio García Villegas. 2001. El caleidoscopio de las justicias en Colombia: análisis socio-jurídico. Bogotá: Coimbra, Portugal: Colciencias: Ediciones Uniandes, Facultad de Derecho, Centro de Investigaciones Sociojurídicas: Instituto Colombiano de Antropología e Historia: Universidad Nacional de Colombia: Siglo del Hombre Editores; Centro de Estudos Sociais, Universidad de Coimbra.Google Scholar
  60. Scott, Joan. 2010. ‘Gender: Still a Useful Category of Analysis?’ Diogenes 57 (1): 7–14. doi:10.1177/0392192110369316.Google Scholar
  61. Sendón de León, Victoria. 2009. Matria: el horizonte de lo posible. Madrid: Siglo XXI.Google Scholar
  62. Speed, Shannon, and María Teresa Sierra. 2005. ‘Introduction: Critical Perspectives on Human Rights and Multiculturalism in Neoliberal Latin America.’ PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review 28 (1): 1–9. doi:10.1525/pol.2005.28.1.1.Google Scholar
  63. Tate, Winifred. 2007. Counting the Dead: The Culture and Politics of Human Rights Activism in Colombia. Berkeley, Calif.; London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  64. Taylor, Claire. 2003. Bodies and Texts: Configurations of Identity in the Works of Griselda Gambaro, Albalucía Ángel, and Laura Esquivel. MHRA Texts and Dissertations; Leeds: Maney Pub. for the Modern Humanities Research Association.Google Scholar
  65. Tommasi, Wanda. 2002. ‘Pensar por imagenes: Simone Weil y Maria Zambrano.’ Aurora 4 (2002): 74–80.Google Scholar
  66. Velásquez Toro, Magdala, and Catalina Reyes Cárdenas. 1995. ‘Proceso histórico y derechos de las mujeres años 50 y 60.’ In Las mujeres en la historia de Colombia, vol.1, edited by Magdala Velásquez Toro, Catalina Reyes Cárdenas, and Pablo Rodríguez, 230–260. Bogotá: Consejería Presidencial para la Política Social: Presidencia de la República de Colombia: Grupo Editorial Norma.Google Scholar
  67. Ventura, Antoine. 2012. ‘La poesía colombiana escrita por mujeres y lo real. Realidad social, lirismo amoroso y estereotipos de género.’ In Palabras de mujeres: proyectos de vida y memoria colectiva, edited by Marie Estripeaut-Bourjac, 121–145. Bogotá D.C: Siglo del Hombre Editores: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Centro de Competencia en Comunicación para América Latina.Google Scholar
  68. Willis Garcés, Andrew. 2009. ‘Ruta Pacifica: Colombian Women against Violence.’ Upside Down World. Accessed August 29, 2014. http://upsidedownworld.org/main/colombia-archives-61/1699-ruta-pacifica-colombian-women-against-violence.
  69. Wills, María Emma and Diana Gómez. 2006. ‘Los movimientos sociales de mujeres (1970–2005). Innovaciones, estancamientos y nuevas apuestas.’ In En la encrucijada: Colombia en el siglo XXI, edited by Francisco Leal Buitrago, 291–320. Bogotá: Editorial Norma.Google Scholar
  70. Wills, María Emma. 2007. Inclusión sin representación: la irrupción política de las mujeres en Colombia (1970–2000). Bogotá: Grupo Editorial Norma.Google Scholar
  71. Wilmer, S. E., and Audronė Žukauskaitė. 2010. Interrogating Antigone in Postmodern Philosophy and Criticism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Woolf, Virginia. 1938. Three Guineas. London: Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  73. Zambrano, María. 1989. La tumba de Antígona. Madrid: Mondadori.Google Scholar
  74. Zambrano, María. 2012 [1948]. ‘Delirio de Antígona.’ In La tumba de Antígona: y otros textos sobre el personaje trágico, edited by Virginia Trueba. Letras Hispánicas; Madrid: Cátedra.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cherilyn Elston
    • 1
  1. 1.SM2 6ERUK

Personalised recommendations