Advertisement

The Ontological Modelling of Fruit Fly Control and Management Knowledge

  • Caroline C. Kiptoo
  • Aurona Gerber
  • Alta Van der Merwe
Chapter

Abstract

Fruit fly control and management in Africa has been the topic of several scientific investigations resulting in diverse sources of knowledge on the topic. Despite the existence of this knowledge, frequently it is not readily accessible to all targeted beneficiaries; this can be due to, for example, the remote locations of farms and the complexity of the knowledge. However, recent technological developments such as web technologies and networking allow for the engagement and participation of stakeholder groups in the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge and these technologies can also be applied to fruit fly knowledge. In order to facilitate this stakeholder participation in fruit fly knowledge sharing, the relevant domain knowledge needs to be available in a format that can support stakeholder engagement, preferably through the Web. Fruit fly knowledge has not been modelled in this manner and this paper reports on an investigation to model and capture the relevant domain knowledge using ontologies. The objective of this work is thus the development of the domain ontology and its evaluation using a prototype stakeholder participation system for fruit fly control and management that was capable of utilising the ontology. We describe our findings on the use of ontology technologies for representation of fruit fly knowledge, the fruit fly ontology developed, as well as a prototype Web-based system that uses the ontology as a source of knowledge.

Keywords

Ontological modelling Ontology-driven Taxonomic key 

References

  1. Allwood AJ, Drew RAI (1997) Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. A regional symposium, Nadi, Fiji 28–31 October 1996. In: Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. A regional symposium, Nadi, Fiji 28–31 October 1996. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (Australia)Google Scholar
  2. Ashburner M, Ball CA, Blake JA, Botstein D, Butler H, Cherry JM, Davis AP, Dolinski K, Dwight SS, Eppig JT, Harris MA (2000) Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology. Nat Genet 25:25–29CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Badii KB, Billah MK, Afreh-Nuamah K, Obeng-Ofori D, Nyarko G (2015) Review of the pest status, economic impact and management of fruit-infesting flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Africa. Afr J Agric Res 10:1488–1498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bard JB, Rhee SY (2004) Ontologies in biology: design, applications and future challenges. Nat Rev Genet 5:213–222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Billah MK, Mansell MW, De Meyer M, Goergen G (2007) Fruit fly taxonomy and identification. In: Billah MK, Ekesi S (eds) A field guide to the management of economically important tephritid fruit flies in Africa, 2nd edn. icipe Science Press, H1-H32Google Scholar
  6. Bonney R, Cooper CB, Dickinson J, Kelling S, Phillips T, Rosenberg KV, Shirk J (2009) Citizen science: a developing tool for expanding science knowledge and scientific literacy. Bioscience 59:977–984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Canning RG (1981) Developing systems by prototyping. EDP Anal 19:1–14Google Scholar
  8. Corcho O, Fernández-López M, Gómez-Pérez A (2003) Methodologies, tools and languages for building ontologies. Where is their meeting point? Data Knowl Eng 46:41–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. de Bon H, Huat J, Parrot L, Sinzogan A, Martin T, Malézieux E, Vayssières J-F (2014) Pesticide risks from fruit and vegetable pest management by small farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. A review. Agron Sust Devel 34:723–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Delaney DG, Sperling CD, Adams CS, Leung B (2008) Marine invasive species: validation of citizen science and implications for national monitoring networks. Biol Invasions 10:117–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dominiak BC, Ekman JH (2013) The rise and demise of control options for fruit fly in Australia. Crop Prot 51:57–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ekesi S (2010) Combating fruit flies in eastern and southern africa (COFESA): elements of a strategy and action plan for a regional cooperation program. International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi/Kenya, pp 9–11Google Scholar
  13. Ekesi S, Muchugu E (2007) Tephritid fruit flies in Africa – fact sheet of some economically important species. In: Billah MK, Ekesi S (eds) A field guide to the management of economically important tephritid fruit flies in Africa, 2nd edn. icipe Science Press, B1-B20Google Scholar
  14. Ekesi S, Maniania NK, Mohamed SA, Lux SA (2005) Effect of soil application of different formulations of Metarhizium anisopliae on African tephritid fruit flies and their associated endoparasitoids. Biol Contr 35:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gennari JH, Musen MA, Fergerson RW, Grosso WE, Crubézy M, Eriksson H, Noy NF, Tu SW (2003) The evolution of Protégé: an environment for knowledge-based systems development. Int J Hum Comput Stud 58:89–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gerber A, Eardley C, Morar N (2014) An ontology-based taxonomic key for Afrotropical bees. In: Garbacz P, Kutz O (eds) Formal ontology in information systems, vol 267. Ios Press, Amsterdam, pp 277–288Google Scholar
  17. Gruber TR (1993) A translation approach to portable ontology specifications. Knowl Acquisi 5:199–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grüninger M, Fox MS (1995) Methodology for the design and evaluation of ontologies. In: Proceedings of the workshop on basic ontological issues in knowledge sharing. IJCAI-95Google Scholar
  19. Guarino N, Oberle D, Staab S (2009) What is an ontology? In: Staab S, Studer R (eds) Handbook on ontologies. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Horridge M, Jupp S, Moulton G, Rector A, Stevens R, Wroe C. (2009) A practical guide to building OWL ontologies using protégé 4 and CO-ODE tools edition1. 2. The University of Manchester 107Google Scholar
  21. Iqbal R, Murad MAA, Mustapha A, Sharef NM (2013) An analysis of ontology engineering methodologies: a literature review. Res J Appl Sci Eng Technol 6:2993–3000Google Scholar
  22. Jones D, Bench-Capon T, Visser P (1998) Methodologies for ontology development. In: Proceedings of IT&KNOWS conference, XV IFIP world computer congressGoogle Scholar
  23. Karns DR, Ruch DD, Brodman RD, Jackson MT, Rothrock PE, Scott PE, Simon TP, Whitaker JO Jr (2006) Results of a short-term BioBlitz of the aquatic and terrestrial habitats of Otter Creek, Vigo County, Indiana. Proc Indiana Acad Sci 115:82–88Google Scholar
  24. Kunne W, Mulligan K, Null G, Simons P, Simons R, Smith B, Willard D (1982) Parts and moments: studies in logic and formal ontology. Retrieved from http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/book/P&M/
  25. Lewington RJ, West CJ (2008) Otari Bioblitz: detailing vascular plants, mosses and liverworts. Wellington Bot Soc Bull 51:5–23Google Scholar
  26. López FM (1999) Overview of methodologies for building ontologies. In: Proceedings of IJCAI99’s workshop on ontologies and problem solving methods: lessons learned and future trends, Stockholm, Sweden, pp 4.1–4.13Google Scholar
  27. Lundmark C (2003) BioBlitz: getting into backyard biodiversity. Bioscience 53:329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Malacrida AR, Gomulski LM, Bonizzoni M, Bertin S, Gasperi G, Guglielmino CR (2007) Globalization and fruitfly invasion and expansion: the medfly paradigm. Genetica 131:1–9. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10709-006-9117-2
  29. Manrakhan A (2007) Fruit fly monitoring – purpose tools and methodology. In: Billah MK, Ekesi S (eds) A field guide to the management of economically important tephritid fruit flies in Africa, 2nd edn. icipe Science Press, C1-C17Google Scholar
  30. Manrakhan A, Kotze C, Daneel J-H, Stephen PR, Beck RR (2013) Investigating a replacement for malathion in bait sprays for fruit fly control in South African citrus orchards. Crop Prot 43:45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nagaraja KS, Gowda VN, Basavarajeshwari SLG, Shabarish PR, Husainnaik M (2014) Effect of protein food baits in attracting fruit flies in mango orchard. Trends Biosci 7:1971–1973Google Scholar
  32. Noy NF, McGuinness DL (2001) Ontology development 101: a guide to creating your first ontology. Stanford knowledge systems laboratory technical report KSL-01-05 and Stanford medical informatics technical report SMI-2001-0880Google Scholar
  33. Noy NF, Crubézy M, Fergerson RW, Knublauch H, Tu SW, Vendetti J, Musen MA (2003) Protégé-2000: an open-source ontology-development and knowledge-acquisition environment. AMIA Annu Symp Proc 953:953Google Scholar
  34. Rubin DL, Noy NF, Musen MA (2007) Protege: a tool for managing and using terminology in radiology applications. J Digit Imag 20:34–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rwomushana I, Ekesi S, Gordon I, Ogol CKPO (2008) Host plants and host plant preference studies for Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Kenya, a new invasive fruit fly species in Africa. Anns Entomol Soc Amer 101:331–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Silvertown J (2009) A new dawn for citizen science. TREE 24:467–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Sivakumar R, Arivoli PV (2011) Ontology visualization protégé tools: a review. Int J Adv Inf Technol 1:1–11. doi: 10.5121/ijait.2011.1401 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Smith B (2003) Ontology. In: Floridi L (ed) Blackwell companion to philosophy, information and computers. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 155–166Google Scholar
  39. Sullivan BL, Wood CL, Iliff MJ, Bonney RE, Fink D, Kelling S (2009) eBird: A citizen-based bird observation network in the biological sciences. Biol Conserv 142:2282–2292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tsarkov D, Horrocks I (2006) FaCT++ description logic reasoner: system description. Automated Reasoning. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/11814771_26
  41. Vargas RI, Walsh WA, Kanehisa D, Stark JD, Nishida T (2000) Comparative demography of three Hawaiian fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) at alternating temperatures. Anns Entomol Soc Amer 93:75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yoder MJ, Miko I, Seltmann KC, Bertone MA, Deans AR (2010) A gross anatomy ontology for Hymenoptera. PLoS One 5:1–8. doi: 10.1271/journal.pone.0015991 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Caroline C. Kiptoo
    • 1
  • Aurona Gerber
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alta Van der Merwe
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of InformaticsUniversity of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa
  2. 2.CAIRCSIR Meraka InstitutePretoriaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations