What Is the Prognostic Value of EMVI?

Chapter

Abstract

Vascular invasion has long been established as a poor prognostic feature in colorectal cancer. Over the past 80 years, experience in gastrointestinal pathology has led to the subclassification of vascular invasion into extramural and intramural venous invasion along with lymphatic channel involvement. This chapter will describe the prognostic significance of these changes, in addition to discussing recent developments in the accurate identification of these critical histopathological findings.

Keywords

Venous invasion Vascular invasion Lymphatic invasion 

References

  1. 1.
    Betge J, Pollheimer MJ, Lindtner RA, Kornprat P, Schlemmer A, Rehak P, Vieth M, Hoefler G, Langner C (2012) Intramural and extramural vascular invasion in colorectal cancer: prognostic significance and quality of pathology reporting. Cancer 118:628–638CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bosch SL, Teerenstra S, de Wilt JH, Cunningham C, Nagtegaal ID (2013) Predicting lymph node metastasis in pT1 colorectal cancer: a systematic review of risk factors providing rationale for therapy decisions. Endoscopy 45:827–834CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chand M, Swift RI, Tekkis PP, Chau I, Brown G (2014) Extramural venous invasion is a potential imaging predictive biomarker of neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer. Br J Cancer 110:19–25CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chand M, Palmer T, Blomqvist L, Nagtegaal I, West N, Brown G (2015) Evidence for radiological and histopathological prognostic importance of detecting extramural venous invasion in rectal cancer: recommendations for radiology and histopathology reporting. Color Dis 17:468–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gibson KM, Chan C, Chapuis PH, Dent OF, Bokey L (2014) Mural and extramural venous invasion and prognosis in colorectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 57:916–926CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kirsch R, Messenger DE, Riddell RH, Pollett A, Cook M, Al-Haddad S, Streutker CJ, Divaris DX, Pandit R, Newell KJ, Liu J, Price RG, Smith S, Parfitt JR, Driman DK (2013) Impact of an elastin stain on detection and Interobserver agreement among gastrointestinal and Nongastrointestinal pathologists. Am J Surg Pathol 37:200–210CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lim SB, Yu CS, Jang SJ, Kim TW, Kim JH, Kim JC (2010) Prognostic significance of lymphovascular invasion in sporadic colorectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 53:377–384CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Loughrey MB, Quirke P, Shepherd N (2014) Standards and datasets for reporting cancers: dataset for colorectal cancer histopathology reports, 3rd edn. Royal College of Pathologists, London. http://www.rcpath.org/publications-media/publications/datasets/colorectal-cancer.htm Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Messenger DE, Driman DK, McLeod RS, Riddell RH, Kirsch R (2011) Current practice patterns among pathologists in the assessment of venous invasion in colorectal cancer. J Clin Pathol 64:983–989CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Messenger DE, Driman DK, Kirsch R (2012) Developments in the assessment of venous invasion in colorectal cancer: implications for future practice and patient outcome. Hum Pathol 43:965–973CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Miles E (1925) The spread of cancer of the rectum. Lancet 205:1218–1219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Minsky BD, Mies C, Recht A, Rich TA, Chaffey JT (1988) Resectable adenocarcinoma of the rectosigmoid and rectum: II the influence of blood vessel invasion. Cancer 61:1417–1424CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Smith NJ, Barbachano Y, Norman AR, Swift RI, Abulafi AM, Brown G (2008) Prognostic significance of magnetic resonance imaging-detected extramural vascular invasion in rectal cancer. Br J Surg 95:229–236CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sternberg A, Mizrahi A, Amar M, Groisman G (2006) Detection of venous invasion in surgical specimens of colorectal carcinoma: the efficacy of various types of tissue blocks. J Clin Pathol 59:207–210CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Suzuki A, Togashi K, Nokubi M, Koinuma K, Miyakura Y, Horie H, Lefor AT, Yasuda Y (2009) Evaluation of venous invasion by Elastica van Gieson stain and tumor budding predicts local and distant metastases in patients with T1 stage colorectal cancer. Am J Surg Pathol 33:1601–1607CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Talbot IC, Ritchie S, Leighton MH, Hughes AO, Bussey HJ, Morson BC (1980) The clinical significance of invasion of veins by rectal cancer. Br J Surg 67:439–442CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tang LH, Berlin J, Branton P, Burgart LJ, Carter DK, Compton CC, Fitzgibbons P, Frankel WL, Halling KC, Jessup J, Kakar S, Minsky B, Nakhelh R, Washington K (2013) Protocol for the examination of specimens from patients with primary carcinoma of the colon and rectum (version 3.3). College of American Pathologists, Northfield: http://www.cap.org/ShowProperty?nodePath=/UCMCon/Contribution Folders/WebContent/pdf/colon-13protocol-3300.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pathology and Tumour BiologyLeeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology, University of LeedsLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations