How Can We Identify Nodal Involvement and Extramural Vascular Invasion?

  • Monique Maas
  • Regina G. H. Beets-Tan


With the shift from postoperative to preoperative (chemo) radiotherapy (CRT) for rectal cancer patients, tumour risk profile assessment, previously based on histology of the resection specimen, is now based on preoperative imaging. Imaging provides information on the T-stage, N-stage and involvement of the mesorectal fascia. Nodal disease is one of the most important risk factors both for local and distant recurrence and is generally considered an indication for neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy. This chapter will discuss whether we can accurately identify with imaging nodal involvement in patients with rectal cancer.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyThe Netherlands Cancer InsitituteAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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