Advertisement

Treatments

  • Laurent Arnaud
  • Ronald van Vollenhoven
Chapter

Abstract

As with all chronic diseases, the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) must be a balanced consideration of multiple disease-related and patient-specific aspects. SLE is associated with symptomatology and may also engender significant functional impairment and restrictions of activities. SLE also has the potential to cause severe and irreversible damage in the affected organs and tissues, and preventing such damage must be an important consideration as well.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1 Fries JF. The assessment of disability: from first to future principles. Br J Rheumatol. 1983;22:48–58.Google Scholar
  2. 2 Grigor C, Capell H, Stirling A, et al. Effect of a treatment strategy of tight control for rheumatoid arthritis (the TICORA study): a single-blind randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2004;364:263–269.Google Scholar
  3. 3 Verstappen SM, Jacobs JW, van der Veen MJ, et al. Intensive treatment with methotrexate in early rheumatoid arthritis: aiming for remission. Computer Assisted Management in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (CAMERA, an open-label strategy trial). Ann Rheum Dis. 2007;66:1443–1449.Google Scholar
  4. 4 van Vollenhoven RF, Mosca M, Bertsias G, et al. Treat-to-target in systemic lupus erythematosus: recommendations from an international task force. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014;73:958–967.Google Scholar
  5. 5 Wasner CK. Ibuprofen, meningitis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 1978;5:162–164.Google Scholar
  6. 6 A randomized study of the effect of withdrawing hydroxychloroquine sulfate in systemic lupus erythematosus. The Canadian Hydroxychloroquine Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1991;324:150–154.Google Scholar
  7. 7 Williams HJ, Egger MJ, Singer JZ, et al. Comparison of hydroxychloroquine and placebo in the treatment of the arthropathy of mild systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 1994;21:1457–1462.Google Scholar
  8. 8 Costedoat-Chalumeau N, Dunogue B, Morel N, Le Guern V, Guettrot-Imbert G. Hydroxychloroquine: a multifaceted treatment in lupus. Presse Med. 2014;43:e167–180.Google Scholar
  9. 9 Jolly M, Galicier L, Aumaitre O, et al. Quality of life in systemic lupus erythematosus: description in a cohort of French patients and association with blood hydroxychloroquine levels. Lupus. 2016;25:735–40.Google Scholar
  10. 10 Costedoat-Chalumeau N, V LEG, Piette JC. Routine Hydroxychloroquine Blood Concentration Measurement in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Reaches Adulthood. J Rheumatol. 2015;42:1997–1999.Google Scholar
  11. 11 Steinberg AD, Gourley M. Cyclophosphamide in lupus nephritis. J Rheumatol. 1995;22:1812–1815.Google Scholar
  12. 12 Steinberg AD, Kaltreider HB, Staples PJ, Goetzl EJ, Talal N, Decker JL. Cyclophosphamide in lupus nephritis: a controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1971;75:165–171.Google Scholar
  13. 13 Steinberg AD, Steinberg SC. Long-term preservation of renal function in patients with lupus nephritis receiving treatment that includes cyclophosphamide versus those treated with prednisone only. Arthritis Rheum. 1991;34:945–950.Google Scholar
  14. 14 Barile-Fabris L, Ariza-Andraca R, Olguin-Ortega L, et al. Controlled clinical trial of IV cyclophosphamide versus IV methylprednisolone in severe neurological manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;64:620–625.Google Scholar
  15. 15 McDermott EM, Powell RJ. Incidence of ovarian failure in systemic lupus erythematosus after treatment with pulse cyclophosphamide. Ann Rheum Dis. 1996;55:224–229.Google Scholar
  16. 16 Mok CC, Lau CS, Wong RW. Risk factors for ovarian failure in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving cyclophosphamide therapy. Arthritis Rheum. 1998;41:831–83.Google Scholar
  17. 17 Huong DL, Amoura Z, Duhaut P, et al. Risk of ovarian failure and fertility after intravenous cyclophosphamide. A study in 84 patients. J Rheumatol. 2002;29:2571–2576.Google Scholar
  18. 18 Blumenfeld Z, Shapiro D, Shteinberg M, Avivi I, Nahir M. Preservation of fertility and ovarian function and minimizing gonadotoxicity in young women with systemic lupus erythematosus treated by chemotherapy. Lupus. 2000;9:401–405.Google Scholar
  19. 19 Somers EC, Marder W, Christman GM, Ognenovski V, McCune WJ. Use of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog for protection against premature ovarian failure during cyclophosphamide therapy in women with severe lupus. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52:2761–2767.Google Scholar
  20. 20 Mok CC, To CH, Yu KL, Ho LY. Combined low-dose mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus for lupus nephritis with suboptimal response to standard therapy: a 12-month prospective study. Lupus. 2013;22:1135–1141.Google Scholar
  21. 21 Ginzler EM, Dooley MA, Aranow C, et al. Mycophenolate mofetil or intravenous cyclophosphamide for lupus nephritis. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:2219–2228.Google Scholar
  22. 22 Chan TM, Li FK, Tang CS, et al. Efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil in patients with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis. Hong Kong-Guangzhou Nephrology Study Group. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:1156–1162.Google Scholar
  23. 23 Chan TM, Tse KC, Tang CS, Mok MY, Li FK. Long-term study of mycophenolate mofetil as continuous induction and maintenance treatment for diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:1076–1084.Google Scholar
  24. 24 Hu W, Liu Z, Chen H, et al. Mycophenolate mofetil vs cyclophosphamide therapy for patients with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis. Chin Med J (Engl). 2002;115:705–709.Google Scholar
  25. 25 Li X, Ren H, Zhang Q, et al. Mycophenolate mofetil or tacrolimus compared with intravenous cyclophosphamide in the induction treatment for active lupus nephritis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27:1467–1472.Google Scholar
  26. 26 Lui SL, Tsang R, Wong D, et al. Effect of mycophenolate mofetil on severity of nephritis and nitric oxide production in lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice. Lupus. 2002;11:411–418.Google Scholar
  27. 27 Appel GB, Contreras G, Dooley MA, et al. Mycophenolate mofetil versus cyclophosphamide for induction treatment of lupus nephritis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:1103–1112.Google Scholar
  28. 28 Dooley MA, Jayne D, Ginzler EM, et al. Mycophenolate versus azathioprine as maintenance therapy for lupus nephritis. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:1886–1895.Google Scholar
  29. 29 Houssiau FA, D’Cruz D, Sangle S, et al. Azathioprine versus mycophenolate mofetil for long-term immunosuppression in lupus nephritis: results from the MAINTAIN Nephritis Trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:2083–2089.Google Scholar
  30. 30 Navarra SV, Guzman RM, Gallacher AE, et al. Efficacy and safety of belimumab in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2011;377:721–731.Google Scholar
  31. 31 Furie R, Petri M, Zamani O, et al. A phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study of belimumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits B lymphocyte stimulator, in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:3918–3930.Google Scholar
  32. 32 van Vollenhoven RF, Petri M, Wallace DJ, et al. Cumulative corticosteroid dose over fifty-two weeks in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: pooled analyses from the phase III belimumab trials. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016;68:2184–2192.Google Scholar
  33. 33 Dooley MA, Houssiau F, Aranow C, et al. Effect of belimumab treatment on renal outcomes: results from the phase 3 belimumab clinical trials in patients with SLE. Lupus. 2013;22:63–72.Google Scholar
  34. 34 van Vollenhoven RF, Petri MA, Cervera R, et al. Belimumab in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: high disease activity predictors of response. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71:1343–1349.Google Scholar
  35. 35 Sjowall C, Coster L. Belimumab may not prevent lupus nephritis in serologically active patients with ongoing non-renal disease activity. Scand J Rheumatol. 2014;43:428–430.Google Scholar
  36. 36 Bhatia A, Ell PJ, Edwards JC. Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) as an adjunct in the treatment of giant cell arteritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;64:1099–1100.Google Scholar
  37. 37 Gunnarsson I, Sundelin B, Jonsdottir T, Jacobson SH, Henriksson EW, van Vollenhoven RF. Histopathologic and clinical outcome of rituximab treatment in patients with cyclophosphamide-resistant proliferative lupus nephritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:1263–1272.Google Scholar
  38. 38 Hofmann SC, Leandro MJ, Morris SD, Isenberg DA. Effects of rituximab-based B-cell depletion therapy on skin manifestations of lupus erythematosus--report of 17 cases and review of the literature. Lupus. 2013;22:932–939.Google Scholar
  39. 39 Jacobson SH, van Vollenhoven R, Gunnarsson I. Rituximab-induced long-term remission of membranous lupus nephritis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006;21:1742–1743.Google Scholar
  40. 40 Jonsdottir T, Gunnarsson I, Risselada A, Henriksson EW, Klareskog L, van Vollenhoven RF. Treatment of refractory SLE with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide: clinical effects, serological changes, and predictors of response. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008;67:330–334.Google Scholar
  41. 41 Jonsdottir T, Sundelin B, Welin Henriksson E, van Vollenhoven RF, Gunnarsson I. Rituximab-treated membranous lupus nephritis: clinical outcome and effects on electron dense deposits. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:1172–1173.Google Scholar
  42. 42 Jonsdottir T, Zickert A, Sundelin B, Henriksson EW, van Vollenhoven RF, Gunnarsson I. Long-term follow-up in lupus nephritis patients treated with rituximab--clinical and histopathological response. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013;52:847–855.Google Scholar
  43. 43 Reddy V, Jayne D, Close D, Isenberg D. B-cell depletion in SLE: clinical and trial experience with rituximab and ocrelizumab and implications for study design. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15:S2.Google Scholar
  44. 44 van Vollenhoven RF, Gunnarsson I, Welin-Henriksson E, et al. Biopsy-verified response of severe lupus nephritis to treatment with rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) plus cyclophosphamide after biopsy-documented failure to respond to cyclophosphamide alone. Scand J Rheumatol. 2004;33:423–427.Google Scholar
  45. 45 Rovin BH, Furie R, Latinis K, et al. Efficacy and safety of rituximab in patients with active proliferative lupus nephritis: the Lupus Nephritis Assessment with Rituximab study. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:1215–226.Google Scholar
  46. 46 Merrill JT, Neuwelt CM, Wallace DJ, et al. Efficacy and safety of rituximab in moderately-to-severely active systemic lupus erythematosus: the randomized, double-blind, phase II/III systemic lupus erythematosus evaluation of rituximab trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:222–233.Google Scholar
  47. 47 van Vollenhoven RF. Rituximab - shadow, illusion or light? Autoimmun Rev. 2012;11:563–567.Google Scholar
  48. 48 Ryden-Aulin M, Boumpas D, Bultink I, et al. Off-label use of rituximab for systemic lupus erythematosus in Europe. Lupus Sci Med. 2016;3:e000163.Google Scholar
  49. 49 Merrill JT, Burgos-Vargas R, Westhovens R, et al. The efficacy and safety of abatacept in patients with non-life-threatening manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus: results of a twelve-month, multicenter, exploratory, phase IIb, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:3077–3087.Google Scholar
  50. 50 Furie R, Nicholls K, Cheng TT, et al. Efficacy and safety of abatacept in lupus nephritis: a twelve-month, randomized, double-blind study. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014;66:379–389.Google Scholar
  51. 51 Treatment of lupus nephritis with abatacept: the Abatacept and Cyclophosphamide Combination Efficacy and Safety Study. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014;66:3096–3104.Google Scholar
  52. 52 Higgs BW, Zhu W, Morehouse C, et al. A phase 1b clinical trial evaluating sifalimumab, an anti-IFN-alpha monoclonal antibody, shows target neutralisation of a type I IFN signature in blood of dermatomyositis and polymyositis patients. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014;73:256–262.Google Scholar
  53. 53 Khamashta M, Merrill JT, Werth VP, et al. Sifalimumab, an anti-interferon-alpha monoclonal antibody, in moderate to severe systemic lupus erythematosus: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016;75:1909–1916.Google Scholar
  54. 54 Peng L, Oganesyan V, Wu H, Dall’Acqua WF, Damschroder MM. Molecular basis for antagonistic activity of anifrolumab, an anti-interferon-alpha receptor 1 antibody. MAbs. 2015;7:428–439.Google Scholar
  55. 55 Illei GG, Austin HA, Crane M, et al. Combination therapy with pulse cyclophosphamide plus pulse methylprednisolone improves long-term renal outcome without adding toxicity in patients with lupus nephritis. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135:248–257.Google Scholar
  56. 56 Houssiau FA, Vasconcelos C, D’Cruz D, et al. Immunosuppressive therapy in lupus nephritis: the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial, a randomized trial of low-dose versus high-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:2121–131.Google Scholar
  57. 57 Houssiau FA, Vasconcelos C, D’Cruz D, et al. The 10-year follow-up data of the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial comparing low-dose and high-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:61–64.Google Scholar
  58. 58 Terrier B, Derian N, Schoindre Y, et al. Restoration of regulatory and effector T cell balance and B cell homeostasis in systemic lupus erythematosus patients through vitamin D supplementation. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14:R221.Google Scholar
  59. 59 Lima GL, Paupitz J, Aikawa NE, Takayama L, Bonfa E, Pereira RM. Vitamin D supplementation in adolescents and young adults with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus for improvement in disease activity and fatigue scores: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2016;68:91–98.Google Scholar
  60. 60 Aranow C, Kamen DL, Dall’Era M, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effect of vtamin D3 on the interferon signature in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015;67:1848–1857.Google Scholar
  61. 61 Andreoli L, Dall’Ara F, Piantoni S, et al. A 24-month prospective study on the efficacy and safety of two different monthly regimens of vitamin D supplementation in pre-menopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2015;24:499–506.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Karolinska University Hospital Unit for Clinical Therapy ResearchStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Clinical Immunology & RheumatologyAcademic Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations