The first four pregnancies achieved by ICSI were reported by Palermo in 1992 and ICSI is now an essential technique in human assisted reproductive technology (ART). ICSI uses beveled and spiked micropipettes (Fig. 39.1a) for mechanical penetration of the zona pellucida and the membrane as well as aspiration of the cytoplasm into the micropipette to break the membrane. After membrane breakage, the sperm is injected into the cytoplasm (Conventional-ICSI). However, the survival rate of mouse oocytes (oocyte diameter 80 μm) was as low as 16% (8% fertilization rate) after Conventional-ICSI.
KeywordsFertilization Human ICSI Lysis Piezo Training period Wall thickness