• Kenichiro HiraokaEmail author
  • Kiyotaka Kawai
  • Tatsuya Harada
  • Tomonori Ishikawa


The first four pregnancies achieved by ICSI were reported by Palermo in 1992 and ICSI is now an essential technique in human assisted reproductive technology (ART). ICSI uses beveled and spiked micropipettes (Fig. 39.1a) for mechanical penetration of the zona pellucida and the membrane as well as aspiration of the cytoplasm into the micropipette to break the membrane. After membrane breakage, the sperm is injected into the cytoplasm (Conventional-ICSI). However, the survival rate of mouse oocytes (oocyte diameter 80 μm) was as low as 16% (8% fertilization rate) after Conventional-ICSI.


Fertilization Human ICSI Lysis Piezo Training period Wall thickness 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenichiro Hiraoka
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kiyotaka Kawai
    • 1
  • Tatsuya Harada
    • 2
  • Tomonori Ishikawa
    • 3
  1. 1.Kameda Medical Center, Assisted Reproductive Technology CenterChibaJapan
  2. 2.Kamaeda IVF Clinic Makuhari, Reproductive MedicineChibaJapan
  3. 3.Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Comprehensive Reproductive MedicineTokyoJapan

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